Principles of Flow Assessment

  • Ahmed A. Alsaileek
  • Fatima Samad
  • A. Jamil Tajik


Hemodynamic science describes the physics and physiology of blood flow through the circulatory system, integrating the relationship of pressure, vascular resistance to flow, and volume flow rate in the cardiovascular system. Doppler echocardiography forms the basis of assessing hemodynamics and has replaced invasive cardiac catheterization for assessing hemodynamics for most clinical purposes. In this chapter, we discuss in great detail the Doppler principle, the hydraulic equation of flow, the continuity equation (law of conservation of mass), the proximal isovelocity surface area method, and the Bernoulli equation. In particular, we have focused on the clinical utility of these equations to assess various hemodynamics of the cardiovascular system, such as calculating the stroke volume, cardiac output, flows through the various cardiac valves, valve areas, regurgitant volumes, and cardiac shunts.


Flow assessment Mitral regurgitation Mitral stenosis Aortic regurgitation Aortic stenosis 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed A. Alsaileek
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fatima Samad
    • 3
  • A. Jamil Tajik
    • 3
  1. 1.King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health SciencesRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Adult Cardiology/Cardiac ImagingKing Abdulaziz Cardiac Center, National Guard Health AffairsRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.St. Luke’s Medical Center, Aurora Cardiovascular ServicesMilwaukeeUSA

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