Advertisement

Source of Embolus

  • Wissam Alajaji
  • Hussain Isma’eel
  • Patrick J. Nash
  • Ronan J. Curtin
  • Allan L. Klein
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter initially focuses on defining the role of echocardiography in assessing for potential cardiovascular sources of embolus, including the indications for echocardiography, which is the optimal modality (transesophageal or transthoracic), and how to perform a comprehensive echocardiographic study. The remainder of the chapter discusses individual potential sources (both probable and possible sources), reviewing the evidence for the association between each potential source and embolic events, characteristic echocardiographic features, how to evaluate for it comprehensively with echocardiography, and current treatment strategies.

Keywords

Cardioembolism Cardiovascular imaging diagnosis Transthoracic echocardiography Transesophageal echocardiography Stroke risk evaluation 

References

  1. 1.
    Thrombosis Res. 2014;133(2):149–153.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J Thoracic Cardiovasc Surg. 2014;147(4):1202–1210. discussion 1210–1.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eur J Cardio-Thoracic Surg. 2013;44(1):24–31.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2012;12(5):345–8.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cappato R, Ezekowitz MD, Klein AL, Camm AJ, Ma CS, Le Heuzey JY, Talajic M, Scanavacca M, Vardas PE, Kirchhof P, Hemmrich M, Lanius V, Meng IL, Wildgoose P, van Eickels M, Hohnloser SH. X-VeRT investigators. Eur Heart J. 2014a;35(47):3346–55.  https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehu367. Epub 2014 Sep 2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cheitlin MD, Armstrong WF, Aurigemma GP, et al. ACC/AHA/ASE 2003 guideline update for the clinical application of echocardiography–summary article: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines (ACC/AHA/ASE Committee to update the 1997 guidelines for the clinical application of echocardiography). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:954–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Donal E, Yamada H, Leclercq C, Herpin D. The left atrial appendage, a small blind ended structure: a review of its echocardiographic evaluation and its clinical role. Chest. 2005;128:1853–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goldman ME, Croft LB. Echocardiography in search of a cardioembolic source. Curr Probl Cardiol. 2002;27:342–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Homma S, Sacco RL. Patent foramen ovale and stroke. Circulation. 2005;112:1063–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Homma S, Sacco RL, Di Tullio MR, Sciacca RR, Mohn JP, PICSS Investigators. Effect of medical treatment in stroke patients with patent foramen ovale. Circulation. 2002;105:2625–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Macleod MR, Amarenco P, Davis SM, Donnan GA. Atheroma of the aortic arch: an important and poorly recognized factor in the etiology of stroke. Lancet Neurol. 2004;3:408–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Udell JA, et al. Patent foramen ovale closure vs medical therapy for stroke prevention: meta-analysis of randomized trials and review of heterogeneity in meta-analyses. Can J Cardiol. 2014;30(10):1216–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cappato R, et al. Rivaroxaban vs. vitamin K antagonists for cardioversion in atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J. 2014;35(47):3346–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wissam Alajaji
    • 1
  • Hussain Isma’eel
    • 2
  • Patrick J. Nash
    • 3
  • Ronan J. Curtin
    • 4
  • Allan L. Klein
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Cardiovascular MedicineAkron City Hospital-Summa Health SystemAkronUSA
  2. 2.Department of CardiologyAmerican University of BeirutBeirutLebanon
  3. 3.Department of CardiologyUniversity Hospital GalwayGalwayIreland
  4. 4.Department of Cardiovascular MedicineCleveland Clinic FoundationClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations