Source of Embolus

  • Wissam Alajaji
  • Hussain Isma’eel
  • Patrick J. Nash
  • Ronan J. Curtin
  • Allan L. Klein


This chapter initially focuses on defining the role of echocardiography in assessing for potential cardiovascular sources of embolus, including the indications for echocardiography, which is the optimal modality (transesophageal or transthoracic), and how to perform a comprehensive echocardiographic study. The remainder of the chapter discusses individual potential sources (both probable and possible sources), reviewing the evidence for the association between each potential source and embolic events, characteristic echocardiographic features, how to evaluate for it comprehensively with echocardiography, and current treatment strategies.


Cardioembolism Cardiovascular imaging diagnosis Transthoracic echocardiography Transesophageal echocardiography Stroke risk evaluation 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wissam Alajaji
    • 1
  • Hussain Isma’eel
    • 2
  • Patrick J. Nash
    • 3
  • Ronan J. Curtin
    • 4
  • Allan L. Klein
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Cardiovascular MedicineAkron City Hospital-Summa Health SystemAkronUSA
  2. 2.Department of CardiologyAmerican University of BeirutBeirutLebanon
  3. 3.Department of CardiologyUniversity Hospital GalwayGalwayIreland
  4. 4.Department of Cardiovascular MedicineCleveland Clinic FoundationClevelandUSA

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