Advertisement

The School-to-Prison Pipeline

  • Sanna King
  • Alicia Rusoja
  • Anthony A. Peguero
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter provides a broad overview of school-based criminalization of youth across the US educational institutions and in the process, explores explanations for the surging of what a growing body of scholarship defines as the ‘school-to-prison pipeline’ (STPP). We show that the STPP metaphor refers to a harmful relationship between school-based criminalization of youth, disproportionately those of colour, and the likelihood that criminalized youth will come into contact with the US juvenile and/or criminal justice system. We present key explanations for, and implications of, this phenomenon, as well as possible directions for research on this issue that very clearly deters educational equity and equality in the United States as well as suggested how STPP may be occurring internationally.

References

  1. Addington, L. A. (2009). Cops & cameras: Public school security as a policy response to Columbine. American Behavioral Scientist, 52(10), 1426–1446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Advancement Project. (2005). Education on lockdown: The schoolhouse to the jailhouse track. Available at http://b.3cdn.net/advancement/5351180e24cb166d02_mlbrqgxlh.pdf.
  3. Advancement Project. (2010). Test, punish, and push out: How “zero tolerance” and high stakes testing funnel youth into the school-to-prison pipeline. Available at https://b.3cdn.net/advancement/d05cb2181a4545db07_r2im6caqe.pdf.
  4. Advancement Project & Gay Straight Alliance Network. (2015). Power in partnerships: Building connections at the intersections to end the school-to-prison pipeline. Available at: http://www.equalityfederation.org/2015/09/collaboration-between-racial-justice-and-lgbt-organizations-urgently-needed-to-address-school-discipline-crisis-report/.
  5. Alexander, M. (2011). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York: New Press.Google Scholar
  6. Andrew, M. (2014). The scarring effects of primary-grade retention? A study of cumulative advantage in the educational career. Social Forces, 93, 653–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Annamma, S. A. (2013). Undocumented and under surveillance: A case study of an undocumented Latina disability in juvenile justice. Association of Mexican American Educators Special Theme Issue, 7(3), 32–29.Google Scholar
  8. Apel, R., Pogarsky, G., & Bates, L. (2009). The sanctions-perception link in a model of school-based deterrence. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 25, 201–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bourdieu, P. (1973). Cultural reproduction. In R. Brown (Ed.), Knowledge, education, and cultural change. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  10. Bourdieu, P. (1984/1979). Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bourdieu, P. (1994/1990). The logic of practice. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. C. (1990). Reproduction in education, society and culture (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  13. Bracy, N. L. (2011). Student perceptions of high-security school environments. Youth & Society, 43, 365–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brea, P., & Morris, E. W. (2014). Suspending progress: Collateral consequences of exclusionary punishment in public schools. American Sociological Review, 79, 1067–1087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cass, J., & Curry, C. (2007). America’s cradle to prison pipeline. Report by Children’s Defense Fund. Retrieved from http://www.childrensdefense.org/library/data/cradle-prison- pipeline-report-2007-full-highres.html
  16. Cataldi, E. F., Laird, J., & KewalRamani, A. (2009). High school dropout and completion rates in the United States: 2007 (NCES 2009-064). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  17. Cregor, M., & Hewitt, D. (2011). Dismantling the school-to-prison pipeline: A survey from the field. Poverty and Race Research Action Council, 20(1), 5–7.Google Scholar
  18. Crenshaw, K.W., Ocen, P., & Nanda, J. (2015). Black girls matter: Pushed out, overpoliced, and underprotected. New York: Center for Intersectionality and Social Policy Studies, Columbia University Law School.Google Scholar
  19. Deakin, J., & Kupchik, A. (2016). Tough choices: School behaviour management and institutional context. Youth Justice, 16(3), 280–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Diaz-Strong, D., & Meiners, E. (2007). Residents, alien policies, and resistances: Experiences of undocumented Latina/o students in Chicago’s colleges and universities. InterActions: UCLA Journal of Education and Information Studies, 3(2), Article 6.Google Scholar
  21. Diaz-Strong, D., Gómez, C., Luna-Duarte, M. E., & Meiners, E. R. (2011). Purged: Undocumented students, financial aid policies, and access to higher education. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 10(2), 107–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Duckworth, C. L. (2016). Is there a school to terror pipeline? The case of France. Journal of Contemporary Issues in Education, 11(1), 86–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dumais, S. A. (2002). Cultural capital, gender, and school success: The role of habitus. Sociology of Education, 75, 44–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Garland, D. (2001). The culture of control: Crime and social order in contemporary society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  25. Graham, K. (2014). Does school prepare men for prison? City: Analysis of Urban Trends, Culture, Theory, Policy, and Action, 18(6), 824–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Graham, L. J., Sweller, N., & Van Bergen, P. (2010). Detaining the usual suspects: Charting the use of segregated settings in New South Wales government schools, Australia. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 11(3), 234–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gregory, A., Skiba, R., & Noguera, P. (2010). The achievement gap and the discipline gap: Two sides of the same coin. Educational Researcher, 39, 59–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hall, E. E. (2010). Criminalizing our youth: The school-to-prison pipeline v. the constitution. South Regional Black Law Student Association Law Journal, 4, 75–81.Google Scholar
  29. Hing, J. (2014). Race, disability and the school-to-prison pipeline. Race Forward. Available at http://www.colorlines.com/articles/race-disability-and-school-prison-pipeline.
  30. Hirschfield, P. J. (2008). Preparing for prison? The criminalization of school discipline in the USA. Theoretical Criminology, 12, 79–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hirschfield, P. J., & Celinska, K. (2011). Beyond fear: Sociological perspectives on the criminalization of school discipline. Sociology Compass, 5(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. IDEA Data Center. (2012). IDEA part B child count and educational environments. Available at: https://ideadata.org/resource-library/#public-data.
  33. Irwin, K., & Umemoto, K. (2016). Jacked up and unjust Pacific Islander teens confront violent legacies. Oakland: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  34. Irwin, K., Davidson, J., & Hall-Sanchez, A. (2013). The race to punish in American schools: Class and race predictors of punitive school-crime control. Critical Criminology, 21, 47–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kim, C., Losen, D. J., & Damon, T. (2012). The school-to-prison pipeline: Structuring legal reform. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Kirk, D. S. (2009). Unraveling the contextual effects on student suspension and juvenile arrest: The independent and interdependent influences of school, neighborhood, and family social controls. Criminology, 47, 479–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kirk, D. S., & Sampson, R. J. (2013). Juvenile arrest and collateral educational damage in the transition to adulthood. Sociology of Education, 86, 36–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kupchik, A. (2009). Things are tough all over: Race, ethnicity, class and school discipline. Punishment & Society, 11, 291–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kupchik, A. (2010). Homeroom security: School discipline in an age of fear. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kupchik, A. (2016). The real school safety problem: The long-term consequences of harsh school punishment. Oakland: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  41. Losen, D. J., & Skiba, R. J. (2010). Suspended education: Urban middle schools in crisis. Montgomery: Southern Poverty Law Center. Available at: http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/publications/suspendededucation.
  42. MacLeod, J. (1987). Ain’t no makin’ it: Aspirations in a low-income neighborhood. Boulder: West View Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  43. Madfis, E. (2014). The risk of school rampage: Assessing and preventing threats of school violence. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mahon-Reynolds, C., & Parker, L. (2016). The overrepresentation of students of color with learning disabilities: How “working identity” plays a role in the school-to-prison pipeline. In D. J. Connor, B. A. Ferri, & S. A. Annamma (Eds.), DisCrit disability studies and critical race theory in education. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  45. Marchbanks, M. P., Blake, J. J., Booth, E. A., Carmichael, D., Seibert, A., Fabelo, T., & Thompson, M. D. (2014). The economic effects of exclusionary discipline on grade retention and high school dropout. In D. Losen (Ed.), Closing the school discipline gap: Research to practice. New York: Teachers Press.Google Scholar
  46. May, D. C., Barranco, R., Stokes, E., Robertson, A. A., & Haynes, S. H. (2016). Do school resource officers really refer juveniles to the juvenile justice system for less serious offenses? Criminal Justice Policy Review, 1–17.Google Scholar
  47. Meiners, E. R. (2007). Right to be hostile: Schools, prisons, and the making of public enemies. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Meiners, E. R., & Winn, M. T. (2010). Resisting the school-to-prison pipeline: The practice to build abolition democracies. Race, Ethnicity & Education, 13(3), 271–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Moller, S., Stearns, E., Blau, J. R., & Land, K. C. (2006). Smooth and rough roads to academic achievement: Retention and race/class disparities in high school. Social Science Research, 35, 157–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Morris, M. W. (2016). Pushout: The criminalization of Black girls in schools. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  51. Morris, E. W., & Brea, B. L. (2016). The punishment gap: School suspension and racial disparities in achievement. Social Problems, 63, 68–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Muncie, J. (2005). The globalization of crime control—The case of juvenile justice: Neoliberalism, policy convergence and international conventions. Theoretical Criminology, 9, 35–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Muschert, G. W., & Peguero, A. A. (2010). The Columbine effect and school anti-violence policy. Research in Social Problems & Public Policy, 17, 117–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Muschert, G. W., Henry, S., Bracy, N. L., & Peguero, A. A. (2013). Responses to school violence: Confronting the Columbine effect. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  55. National Congress of American Indians. (2016). Are native youth being pushed into prison?: An infographic. Washington, DC. Available at: http://www.ncai.org/policy-research-center/research-data/prc-publications/School-to-Prison_Pipeline_Infographic.pdf.
  56. National Council on Disability. (2015). Breaking the school-to-prison pipeline for students with disabilities. Available at: http://www.ncd.gov/publications/2015/06182015.
  57. Noguera, P. A. (2008). The trouble with Black boys: And other reflections on race, equity, and the future of public education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  58. Pantoja, A. (2013). Reframing the school-to-prison pipeline: The experiences of Latin@ youth and families. Association of Mexican American Educators Journal, 7, 17–31.Google Scholar
  59. Peguero, A. A. (2011). Violence, schools, and dropping out. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(18), 3753–3772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Peguero, A. A., & Bracy, N. L. (2015). School order, justice, and education: Climate, discipline practices, and dropping out. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 25, 412–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Portillos, E., González, J. C., & Peguero, A. A. (2012). Crime control strategies in school: Chicanos/as perceptions and criminalization. The Urban Review, 44(2), 171–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Raible, J., & Irizarry, J. G. (2010). Redirecting the teacher’s gaze: Teacher education, youth surveillance, and the school-to-prison pipeline. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 1196–1203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rios, V. M. (2011). Punished: Policing the lives of Black and Latino boys. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Rocque, M., & Snellings, Q. (2017). The new disciplinology: Research, theory, and remaining puzzles on the school-to-prison pipeline. Journal of Criminal Justice, 1–9. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2017.05.002.
  65. Rumberger, R. W. (2011). Dropping out: Why students drop out of high school and what can be done about it. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1997). A life-course theory of cumulative disadvantage and the stability of delinquency. In T. P. Thornberry (Ed.), Developmental theories of crime and delinquency: Advances in criminological theory (Vol. 7). New Brunswick: Transaction.Google Scholar
  67. Scott, R., & Saucedo, M. (2013). Mass incarceration, the school-to-prison pipeline, and the struggle over “secure communities” in Illinois. Journal of Educational Controversy, 7(1). Available at: http://cedar.wwu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1175&context=jec.
  68. Shedd, C. (2015). Unequal city: Race, schools, and perceptions of injustice. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  69. Simon, J. (2007). Governing through crime: How the war on crime transformed American democracy and created a culture of fear. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Skiba, R. J., Horner, R. H., Chung, C. G., Rausch, M. K., May, S. L., & Tobin, T. (2011). Race is not neutral: A national investigation of African American and Latino disproportionality in school discipline. School Psychology Review, 40, 85–107.Google Scholar
  71. Sudbury, J. (2005). Global lockdown: Race, gender, and the prison-industrial complex. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  72. Sykes, B. L., Piquero, A. R., Gioviano, J. P., & Pittman, N. (2015). The school-to-prison pipeline in America, 1972–2012. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Oxford handbooks online in criminology and criminal justice. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Terrio, S. (2009). Judging Mohammed: Juvenile delinquency, immigration, and exclusion at the Paris Palace of Justice. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Theriot, M. T. (2009). School resource officers and the criminalization of student behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice, 37, 280–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Timmons Flores, M. (2013). A DREAM deported: What undocumented immigrant youth need their schools to understand. Journal of Educational Controversy, 7(1). Available online at: http://cedar.wwu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1178&context=jec.
  76. Tulman, J. B., & Weck, D. M. (2010). Shutting off the school-to-prison pipeline for status offenders with education-related disabilities. New York Law School Review, 54, 875–907.Google Scholar
  77. United States Department of Education. (2014). 36th annual report to congress on the implementation of IDEA act. Available online at: https://www.edpubs.gov/document/ed005594p.pdf?cd=299.
  78. United States Department of Education Office for Civil Rights. (2014, March 21). Civil rights data collection data snapshot: School discipline [online]. Available at http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/crdc-discipline-snapshot.pdf.
  79. Welch, K., & Payne, A. A. (2010). Racial threat and punitive school discipline. Social Problems, 57, 25–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Welch, K., & Payne, A. A. (2012). Exclusionary school punishment: The effect of racial threat on expulsion and suspension. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 10, 155–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Western, B. (2006). Punishment and inequality in America. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  82. Winn, M. T., & Behizadeh, N. (2011). The right to be literate: Literacy, education, and the school-to-prison pipeline. Review of Research in Education, 35, 147–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wright, J. P., Morgan, M. A., Coyne, M. A., Beaver, K. M., & Barnes, J. C. (2014). Prior problem behavior accounts for the racial gap in school suspensions. Journal of Criminal Justice, 42, 257–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Zimmerman, G. M., & Rees, C. (2014). Do school disciplinary policies have positive social impacts? Examining the attenuating effects of school policies on the relationship between personal and peer delinquency. Journal of Criminal Justice, 42, 54–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanna King
    • 1
  • Alicia Rusoja
    • 2
  • Anthony A. Peguero
    • 3
  1. 1.University of Hawaiʻi, MānoaHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Virginia TechBlacksburgUSA

Personalised recommendations