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Pollen Morphology and Ultrastructure

  • Heidemarie Halbritter
  • Silvia Ulrich
  • Friðgeir Grímsson
  • Martina Weber
  • Reinhard Zetter
  • Michael Hesse
  • Ralf Buchner
  • Matthias Svojtka
  • Andrea Frosch-Radivo
Open Access
Chapter

Abstract

The study of pollen should encompass all structural and ornamental aspects of the grain. Pollen morphology is studied using LM and SEM and is important to visualize the general features of a pollen grain, including, e.g., symmetry, shape, size, aperture number and location, as well as ornamentation. TEM investigations are used to highlight the stratification and the uniqueness of pollen wall layers as well as cytoplasmic features. The following sections explain the most important structural and sculptural pollen features a palynologist should observe.

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Heidemarie Halbritter
    • 1
  • Silvia Ulrich
    • 1
  • Friðgeir Grímsson
    • 2
  • Martina Weber
    • 1
  • Reinhard Zetter
    • 2
  • Michael Hesse
    • 1
  • Ralf Buchner
    • 1
  • Matthias Svojtka
    • 1
  • Andrea Frosch-Radivo
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Structural and Functional BotanyDepartment of Botany and Biodiversity ResearchUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Department of PalaeontologyUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

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