Anatomy of the Helicotrema and Cochlear Apex

  • Charles G. Wright
  • Peter S. Roland


Scala vestibuli and scala tympani are connected at the cochlear apex via an opening known as the helicotrema. The apical portion of the cochlea has a complex and variable three-dimensional anatomy. Structural variations in the helicotrema area may contribute to functional differences in low-frequency hearing sensitivity among individuals.


Helicotrema Cochlear apex Scala vestibuli Scala tympani Modiolus Osseous spiral lamina Cochlear duct 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles G. Wright
    • 1
  • Peter S. Roland
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA

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