Celebratıon of Ramadan: The Case of Turkey

  • Zuhal Yonca Odabas
  • Günnur Ertong Attar
Part of the Leisure Studies in a Global Era book series (LSGE)


In Turkey, the meaning of Ramadan has seen changes since the start of the new millennium. In the AK (Justice and Development) Party’s power, conservatism in both public and private spheres has started to become more visible. The time of secular political power is waning; religion—and all kinds of religious activities—are no longer ‘the other’. This chapter is placed at the intersection of several subfields of sociology (e.g., sociology of religion, of leisure and of celebration). ‘Symbolic interactionism’ is the basic theoretical perspective, which is well suited to helping our understanding of the fluid relationships between religions and social structures, and between religions and cultural change, as well as shedding light on the personal transformations experienced by individuals moving between religious systems of meaning. In addition to this theoretical perspective, the arguments and concepts of Victor Turner, namely, festivals and liminality, are used to explain the process of construction of identity at a personal level. In this chapter, Ramadan is accepted as ‘a story telling narrative’, since it helps people connect to their past, specifically to their own childhood.


Turkey Ramadan Liminality Identity Leisure 


  1. Adorno, T. (1975). Culture Industry Reconsidered. New German Critique, 6, 12–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armbrust, W. (2002). The Riddle of Ramadan: Media, Consumer Culture, and the ‘Christmasization’ of a Muslim Holiday. In D. Bowen & E. Early (Eds.), Everyday Life in the Middle East (pp. 335–348). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Baudrillard, J. (1994). Simulacra and Simulation. Michigan: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  4. Berkes, N. (1964; 2017). Türkiye’de Çağdaşlaşma. İstanbul: Yapı Kredi.Google Scholar
  5. Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  6. Davide Sterchele, D., & Saint-Blancat, C. (2013). Keeping It Liminal. The Mondiali Antirazzisti (Anti-racist World Cup) as a Multifocal Interaction Ritual. Leisure Studies, 34(2), 1–15.Google Scholar
  7. deLisle, L. J. (2003). Keys to the Kingdom or Devil’s Playground? The Impact of Institutionalised Religion on the Perception and Use of Leisure. Annals of Leisure Research, 6, 83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  9. Georgeon, F., & Dumont, P. (2008). Osmanlı imparatorluğu’nda Yaşamak. İstanbul: İletişim.Google Scholar
  10. Goffman, E. (1959). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  11. Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, Self and Society. Chiago: Chiago University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Morley, D., & Robins, K. (1995). Spaces of Identity: Global Media, Electronic Landscapes and Cultural Boundaries. New York: Taylor & Francis.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Murphy, H. (2003). Exploring Leisure and Physhological Health and Wellbeing: Some Problamatic Issues in the Case of Nothern Ireland. Leisure Studies, 22, 37–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Stebbins, R. A. (1992). Amateurs, Professionals, and Serious Leisure. Montréal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Stebbins, R. A. (2007). The Sociology of Leisure and Recreation. In C. D. Bryant & D. L. Peck (Eds.), 21st Century Sociology: A Reference Handbook (pp. 197–204). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Touzani, M., & Hirschman, E. C. (2008). Cultural Syncretism and Ramadan Observance: Consumer Research Visits Islam. Advances in Consumer Research, 35, 374–380.Google Scholar
  17. Touzani, M., & Hirschman, E. (2011). Minority Religious Rituals in the Post Colonial World: Ramadan in France, European. Advances in Consumer Research, 9, 116–122.Google Scholar
  18. Turner, V. (1974). Liminal to Liminoid, in Play, Flow, and Ritual: An Essay in Comparative Symbology, Rice Institute Pamphlet—Rice University. Studies, 60(3), 53–92.Google Scholar
  19. Weber, M. (1930). The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. London: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zuhal Yonca Odabas
    • 1
  • Günnur Ertong Attar
    • 2
  1. 1.Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyoloji Bölümü Fatih MahallesiCankiri Karatekin UniversityÇankırı Merkez/ÇankırıTurkey
  2. 2.Mersin Üniversitesi Fen Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyoloji BölümüMersin UniversityYenişehir/MersinTurkey

Personalised recommendations