Advertisement

Why a Feminist Standpoint Epistemology Is Necessary in Times of Hegemonic Masculinity: Thoughts on Intersectionality and Transrationality

  • Annette Weber
Chapter

Abstract

The chapter argues for a feminist political positioning and the need for space for marginal voices in times of hegemonic masculinity. The understanding of liberal feminist on equality by bringing women in does not suffice for a structural change in International Relations (IR) and conflict management. However, the expectations of essentialist feminists hoping for an inherent peacefulness of women as a dividing and shaping marker is equally proven simplistic. More is necessary, inclusion as well as a recognition of standpoints resulting from experience of those who are not the dominant subject in the respective context. Gender therefore is both, a social construct as well as an embodied reality in a masculinist world. This calls for a political standpoint epistemology, the recognition of power structures based on – as well as an ideal of overcoming – gender, race and class based categories of hegemonic dominance. Taking the approach of intersectionality as relational praxis, is not based on a model of access to experience in the formation of knowledge by any given individual. It much more calls for the acceptance of the non-accessibility of experience based on gender, race, class or sexual orientation by the respective dominant subject and the necessity of voice and existence in public and private, political and social spaces. Being an ally then becomes a political activity of support without taking the power of definition or the lead in articulation of experience. Only then can intersectional politics grow and the multitude of experience, voices and perspectives enrich the discourse – be it academic, political, spiritual or relational.

References

  1. Albrecht-Heide, Astrid. 1984. Frau Macht (macht?) Militär. In Frauen und Macht. Der alltägliche Beitrag der Frauen zur Politik des Patriarchats, ed. Barbara Schaeffer-Hegel, 293–318. Berlin: Centaurus.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, Jacqui, and Chandra Talpade Mohanty, eds. 1997. Feminist Genealogies, Colonial Legacies, Democratic Futures. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Applebaum, Barbara. 2016. Critical Whiteness Studies. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.013.5. Accessed 23 Feb 2017.
  4. Arendt, Hannah. 1958. The Human Condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  5. Baaz, Maria Eriksson, and Maria Stern. 2009. Why Do Soldiers Rape? Masculinity, Violence, and Sexuality in The Armed Forces in the Congo (DRC). International Studies Quarterly 53 (2): 495–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. de Beauvoir, Simone. 1974. The Second Sex. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  7. Benhabib, Seyla, Judith Butler, Drucilla Cornell, and Nancy Fraser. 1995. Feminist Contentions: A Philosophical Exchange. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Bly, Robert. 1990. Iron John: A Book About Men. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  9. Brock-Utne, Birgit. 1989. Feminist Perspectives on Peace and Peace Education. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  10. Butler, Judith. 1988. Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory. Theatre Journal 40 (4): 519–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. ———. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Butler, Judith, and Joan W. Scott, eds. 1992. Feminists Theorize the Political. New York/London: Routledge/Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  13. Chodorow, Nancy. 1978. The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  14. Cohn, Carol. 1987a. Sex and Death in the Rational World of Defense Intellectuals. Signs 12 (4): 687–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. ———. 1987b. Slick’Ems, Glick ‘Ems, Christmas Trees, and Cutters: Nuclear Language and How We Learned to Pat the Bomb. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 43 (5): 17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Collins, Patricia Hill. 1990. Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness and the Politics of Empowerment. Boston: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
  17. Connell, Robert W., and James W. Messerschmidt. 2005. Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept. Gender & Society 19 (6): 829–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cooke, Miriam. 1993. Wo-Man, Retelling the War Myth. In Gendering War Talk, ed. Miriam Cooke and Angela Woollacott, 177–204. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Crenshaw, Kimberlé. 1991. Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of Color. Stanford Law Review 43 (6): 1241–1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. D’Amico, Francine. 1996. Feminist Perspectives on Women Warriors. Peace Review 8 (3): 379–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Daly, Mary. 1978. Gyn/Ecology. The Metaethics of Radical Feminism. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  22. Dietrich, Wolfgang. 2006. A Call for Trans-Rational Peaces. Virtual Peace Library of the UNESCO Chair for Peace Studies. https://www.uibk.ac.at/peacestudies/downloads/peacelibrary/transrational.pdf. Accessed 17 Feb 2006.
  23. Elshtain, Jean Bethke. 1987. Women and War. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  24. Enloe, Cynthia. 1983. Does Khaki Become You?: The Militarization of Women’s Lives. Boston: South End Press.Google Scholar
  25. ———. 1989. Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  26. ———. 1990. Women and Children: Making Feminist Sense of the Persian Gulf Crisis. The Village Voice, September 25.Google Scholar
  27. Friedan, Betty. 1963. The Feminist mystique. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  28. Goldman, Emma. 1923. My Disillusionment in Russia. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company.Google Scholar
  29. ———. 1924. My Further Disillusionment in Russia. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company.Google Scholar
  30. Göttner-Abendroth, Heide. 1980. Die Göttin und ihr Heros. Die matriarchalen Religionen in Mythen, Märchen, Dichtung. München: Frauenoffensive.Google Scholar
  31. Gilligan, Carol. 1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Grant, Rebecca, and Kathleen Newland, eds. 1991. Gender and International Relations. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Hartmann, Heidi. 1981. The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism: Towards a More Progressive Union. In Women and Revolution, ed. Lydia Sargent, 1–42. Boston: South End Press.Google Scholar
  34. Heyes, Cressida J. 2000. Line Drawings: Defining Women Through Feminist Practice. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  35. hooks, bell. 1981. Ain’t I a woman? New York: South End Press.Google Scholar
  36. ———. 2000. Feminist Theory from Margin to Center. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  37. Isaksson, Eva, ed. 1988. Women and the Military System. New York/London: Harvester; Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  38. Joseph, Suad, ed. 2000. Gender and Citizenship in the Middle East. New York: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Jung, Carl Gustav. 1991. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. Kaplan, Laura. 1994. Women as Nurturer: An Archetype that Supports Patriarchal Militarism. Hypatia 9 (2): 123–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kollontai, Alexandra. 1978 [1909]. The Social Basis of the Woman Question. In Selected Writings of Alexandra Kollontai. Westport: Lawrence Hill and Company.Google Scholar
  42. ———. 1971 [1919]. Women Workers Struggle for Their Rights. Bristol: Falling Wall Press.Google Scholar
  43. Law, Cheryl. 1997. Suffrage and Power: The Women’s Movement 1918–1928. London: IB Tauris.Google Scholar
  44. Mohanty, Chandra Talpade, Ann Russo, and Lourdes Torres, eds. 1991. Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Mounk, Yasha. 2016. Yes, American Democracy Could Break Down. Politico Magazine, October 22. http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2016/10/trump-american-democracy-could-break-down-214383.
  46. Paffenholz, Thania, Nick Ross, Steven Dixon, Anna-Lena Schluchter, and Jacqui True. 2016. Making Women Count – Not Just Counting Women: Assessing Women’s Inclusion and Influence on Peace Negotiations. Geneva: Inclusive Peace and Transition Initiative and UN Women. http://www.inclusivepeace.org/sites/default/files/IPTI-UN-Women-Report-Making-Women-Count-60-Pages.pdf. Accessed 19 Feb 2017.
  47. Pateman, Carol. 1988. The Sexual Contract. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Randall, Margaret. 1994. Sandino’s Daughters Revisited. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Reardon, Betty. 1985. Sexism and the War System. New York/London: Teachers College; Columbiea University.Google Scholar
  50. Ruddick, Sara. 1989. Maternal Thinking: Toward a Politics of Peace. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  51. Seifert, Ruth. 1992. Männlichkeitskonstruktionen: Die diskursive Macht des Militärs. Das Argument 34 (196): 859–872.Google Scholar
  52. Shanley, Mary Lyndon, and Carole Pateman, eds. 1991. Feminist Interpretations and Political Theory. University Park: The Pennsylvanian State University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Shiva, Vandana. 1992. The Seed and the Earth: Women, Ecology and Biotechnology. The Ecologist 22 (1): 4–7.Google Scholar
  54. ———. 1993. Ecofeminism, Kali for Women. New Delhi/London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  55. Sjoberg, Laura, and Caron E. Gentry. 2007. Mothers, Monsters, Whores: Women’s Violence in Global Politics. London: Zed.Google Scholar
  56. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. 1996. In The Spivak Reader: Selected Works of Gayati Chakravorty Spivak, ed. Donna Landry and Gerald MacLean. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. ———. 1999. A Critique of Postcolonial Reason. Toward a History of the Vanishing Present. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Stauton, Irene. 1990. Mothers of the Revolution: The War Experience of Thirty Zimbabwean Women. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Steinberg, Guido, and Annette Weber, eds. 2015. Jihadismus in Afrika: Lokale Ursachen, Regionale Ausbreitung, Internationale Verbindungen. Berlin: Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik.Google Scholar
  60. von Suttner, Bertha. 1892. Lay Down Your Arms: The Autobiography of Martha Von Tilling. London: Longmans.Google Scholar
  61. Theweleit, Klaus. 1993. The Bomb’s Womb and the Genders of War (War Goes on Preventing Women from Becoming the Mothers of Invention). In Gendering War Talk, ed. Miriam Cooke and Angela Woollacott, 177–204. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Thürmer-Rohr, Christina, ed. 1990. Mittäterschaft und Entdeckungslust. Berlin: Orlanda Frauenverlag.Google Scholar
  63. Tickner, Anne. 1991. Hans Morgenthau’s Principles of Political Realism: A Feminist Reformulation. In Gender and International Relations, ed. Rebecca Grant and Kathleen Newland, 27–40. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  64. ———. 1992. Gender in International Relations. Feminist Perspectives on Achieving Global Security. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Turshen, Meredeth, and Clotilde Twagiramariya, eds. 1989. What Women Do in Wartime: Gender and Conflict in Africa. London: Zed.Google Scholar
  66. Urdang, Stephanie. 1989. And Still They Dance. Women, War and the Struggle for Change in Mozambique. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  67. UN Security Council, Security Council Resolution 1325. 2000. On Women and Peace and Security. http://www.refworld.org/docid/3b00f4672e.html. Accessed 5 July 2017.
  68. Weber, Annette. 2007. Barbarian Beasts or Mothers of Invention? Relation of Gendered Fighter and Citizen Images, with a Specific Case Study on Southern Sudan. PhD Dissertation, Freie Universität Berlin.Google Scholar
  69. ———. 2011. Women Without Arms: Gendered Fighter Constructions in Eritrea and Southern Sudan. International Journal of Conflict and Violence 5 (2): 357–370.Google Scholar
  70. Wilber, Ken. 1995. Sex, Ecology, Spirituality, Vol 1: The Spirit of Evolution. Boston: Shambhala Publications.Google Scholar
  71. ———. 2006. Integral spirituality. Boston: Shambhala.Google Scholar
  72. Wilson, Amrit. 1991. The Challenge Road: Women and the Eritrean Revolution. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  73. Witt, Charlotte. 1995. Anti-essentialism in Feminist Theory. Philosophical Topics 23 (2): 321–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Woolf, Virginia. 1938. Three Guineas. London: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  75. Yuval-Davis, Nira. 1999. The ‘Multi-Layered Citizen. International Feminist Journal of Politics 1 (1): 119–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zetkin, Clara. 1895. On a Bourgeois Feminist Petition. Marxist Internet Archive. https://www.marxists.org/archive/draper/1976/women/3-zetkin.html. Accessed 23 Feb 2017.
  77. ———. 1920. Lenin on the Women’s Question. Marxist Internet Archive. https://www.marxists.org/archive/zetkin/1920/lenin/zetkin1.htm. Accessed 23 Feb 2017.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annette Weber
    • 1
  1. 1.Middle East and Africa DivisionGerman Institute for International and Security AffairsBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations