Advertisement

The TOEIC

  • Dawn Karen Booth
Chapter
Part of the English Language Education book series (ELED, volume 12)

Abstract

This chapter provides historical background with respect to the early development of the TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication) and describes the growing popularity of the test worldwide – particularly in Korea, where it is used for a range of high stakes purposes. The chapter further describes the evolution of the TOEIC test battery, and follows with an overall evaluation of the validity of the test with regard to substantive, generalizibility, external, and consequential aspects of test validity. The review of literature presented in this chapter emphasises an urgent need for more research into the validity of the TOEIC, especially with regard to the interpretation and use of test scores by end users, and test consequences.

Keywords

TOEIC Background Evolution Test evaluation Validity Reliability Substantive validity Generalizability External validity Consequential validity Japan Korea ETS English testing EFL testing Global 

References

  1. Bachman, L. F. (1990). Fundamental considerations in language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bachman, L. F., & Palmer, A. S. (1996). Language testing in practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Betaneli, C. (2011). Global use of the TOEIC tests continues to increase as a record-breaking six million tests were administered in 2010. (ETS news release). Princeton: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  4. Boldt, R. F., & Ross, S. (1998). The impact of training type and time on TOEIC scores. Princeton: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, D. (2004). Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices. New York: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  6. Buck, G. (2001). Assessing listening. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chapman, M. (2003). TOEIC: Tried but undertested. Retrieved from http://www.jalt.org/test/cha_1.htm
  8. Chapman, M. (2004). An interview with Kazuhiko Saito. Shiken: JALT Testing and Evaluation SIG Newsletter, 8(2), 10–12. Retrieved from http://jalt.org/test/sai_cha.htm.Google Scholar
  9. Chapman, M., & Newfields, T. (2008). The ‘new’ TOEIC. Shiken: JALT Testing and Evaluation SIG Newsletter, 12, 32–37.Google Scholar
  10. Chauncey Group International Ltd. (1996). TOEIC examinee handbook. Chauncey Group International.Google Scholar
  11. Cheng, L., Sun, Y., & Ma, J. (2015). Review of washback research literature within Kane’s argument-based validation framework. Language Teaching, 48, 436–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cronbach, L. J. (1989). Construct validity after thirty years. In R. L. Lin (Ed.), Intelligence: Measurement theory and public policy (pp. 147–171). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  13. Douglas, D. (1992). Test of English for International Communication. In J. Kramer & J. Conoley (Eds.), The eleventh mental measurements yearbook (pp. 950–951). Lincoln: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.Google Scholar
  14. Dudley-Evans, R., & St John, M. J. (1996). Report on business English: A review of research and published teaching materials (ETS Research Report No. 2). Princeton: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  15. Duke, T. (2006). Modifications and features of the new TOEIC test. TOEIC Newsletter (No. 92). Princeton: Educational Testing Services.Google Scholar
  16. Educational Testing Services. (2003). TOEIC® from A to Z. Princeton: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  17. Educational Testing Services. (2008). TOEIC for the workplace. Retrieved from http://www.ets.org/toeic/succeed
  18. Educational Testing Services. (2016). 2016 report on test takers worldwide: The TOEIC listening and reading test. Retrieved from https://www.ets.org/s/toeic/pdf/ww_data_report_unlweb.pdf
  19. Hamp-Lyons, L. (1998). Ethical Test Preparation Practice: The Case of the TOEFL. TESOL Quarterly, 32(2), 329.Google Scholar
  20. Hines, S. (2010). Evidence-centered design: The TOEIC speaking and writing tests. (ETS Research Report No. TC-10-07). Princeton: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  21. Hirai, M. (2002). Correlations between active skill and passive skill test scores. Shiken: JALT Testing & Evaluation SIG Newsletter, 6(3), 2–8.Google Scholar
  22. Hongo, J. (2014, July 18). Japan ranks 40th of 48 countries in TOEIC scores. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from https://blogs.wsj.com/japanrealtime/2014/07/18/japan-ranks-40th-of-48-countries-in-toeic-scores/
  23. Hughes, A. (1989). Testing for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Hughes, A. (2003). Testing for language teachers (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Ihara, H., & Tsuroka, T. (2001). TOEIC: Seikou no himitsu maaketinguteki shiten kara no bunseki [The secret behind the success of TOEIC: An analysis from a marketing view point]. Nagano University Bulletin, 32(2), 32–52.Google Scholar
  26. IIBC. (2009). Profile Kitaoka Yasuo. Retrieved from http://www.toeic.or.jp/30th/secrets/1.html
  27. Ito, A., Shimatani, H., Norizuki, K., & Kinoshita, M. (2009). Kotenteki test riron ni motozuku shin kyu TOEIC no hikaku bunseki [Two versions of the TOEIC Test: A comparative study based on the Classical Test Theory]. JLT Journal, 12, 26–45.Google Scholar
  28. In’nami, Y., & Koizumi, R. (2012). Factor structure of the revised TOEIC test: A multiple- sample analysis. Language Testing, 29(1), 131–152.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532211413444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ito, T., Kawaguchi, K., & Ohta, R. (2005). A study of the relationship between TOEIC scores and functional job performance: Self-assessment of foreign language proficiency. TOEIC Research Report, 1–40.Google Scholar
  30. Iwabe, K. (2005, March). Untitled presentation. Paper presented at the TOEIC Training Seminar sponsored by IIBC.Google Scholar
  31. Japan Today. (2017, April 17). Englishisation – Is it working? Japan Today. Retrieved from https://japantoday.com/category/features/lifestyle/englishisation-is-it-working
  32. Kane, M. (2006). Validation. In R. L. Brennan (Ed.), Educational measurement (4th ed., pp. 17–64). Westport: American council on Education/Praeger.Google Scholar
  33. Kane, M. (2013). Validating the interpretations and uses of test scores. Journal of Education Measurement, 50(1), 1–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kim, S. (2016, April 1). Korean takers fall prey to fee rise. The Korea Times. Retrieved from http://www.pressreader.com/korea-republic/the-korea-times/20160401/281547995030991
  35. Knapman, G. (2008). The TOEIC: Critical review. Fukuikogyodai Journal, 38, 85–94.Google Scholar
  36. Kunnan, A. J. (2004). Test fairness. In M. Milanovic & C. Weir (Eds.), European language testing in a global context (pp. 27–48). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Lee, S., Yoshizawa, K., & Shimabayashi, S. (2006). The content analysis of the TOEIC and its relevancy to language curricula in EFL contexts in Japan. JLTA Journal, 9, 154–173.Google Scholar
  38. Liao, C.-W. (2010). TOEIC listening and reading test scale anchoring study (ETS Research Report No. TC-10-05). Princeton: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  39. Liao, C.-W., Hatrak, N., & Yu, F. (2010a). Comparison of content, item statistics, and test-taker performance for the redesigned and classic TOEIC listening and reading test (ETS Research Report No. TC-10-04). Princeton: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  40. Liao, C., Qu, Y., & Morgan, R. (2010b). The relationships of test scores measured by the TOEIC listening and reading test and TOEIC speaking and writing tests (ETS Research Report No. TC-10-13). Princeton: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  41. McCrostie, J. (2010). The TOEIC in Japan: A scandal made in heaven. JALT Testing and Evaluation Sig Newsletter, 14. Retrieved from http://hosted.jalt.org/test/mcc_1.htm
  42. McNamara, T. (2000). Language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Messick, S. (1989). Validity. In R. L. Linn (Ed.), Educational measurement (3rd ed., pp. 13–103). New York: ACE and Macmillan.Google Scholar
  44. Messick, S. (1996). Validity and washback in language testing. Language Testing, 13, 241–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Moritoshi, P. (2001). The Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC): Necessity, proficiency levels, test score utilisation and accuracy. Retrieved from http://www.cels.bham.ac.uk/resources/Essays.htm
  46. Nall, T. (2004). TOEIC: A discussion and analysis. The ELT two cents cage. Retrieved from http://www.oocities.org/twocentseltcafe/teach/toeic.html
  47. Newfields, T. (2005). TOEIC washback effects on teachers: A pilot study at one university faculty. Toyo University Keizai Ronshu. Retrieved from http://www.tnewfields.info/Articles/washback.htm
  48. Powers, D. E. (2010). Validity – What does it mean for the TOEIC tests? (ETS Research Report TC-10-01). Princeton: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  49. Powers, D. E. (2014). The incremental contribution of TOEIC listening, reading, and writing tests to predicting performance on real-life English language tasks.Google Scholar
  50. Powers, D. E., Kim, H. -J., & Weng, V. Z. (2008). The redesigned TOEIC® (Listening and Reading) test: Relations to test-taker perceptions of proficiency in English (ETS Research Report No. TC-10-06). Princeton: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  51. Powers, D. E., Kim, H. -J., Weng, V. Z., & VanWinkle, W. (2010). The TOEIC speaking and writing tests: Relations to test-taker perceptions of proficiency in English (ETS Research Report No. TC-10-11). Princeton: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  52. Prey, R. (2001). How do you say ‘imperialism’? The English language teaching industry and the culture of imperialism in South Korea. Unpublished M.A. dissertation. University of Windsor, Ontario.Google Scholar
  53. Read, J. (2010). Researching language testing and assessment. In B. Paltridge & A. Phakiti (Eds.), Continuim companion to research methods in applied linguistics (pp. 286–301). London: Continuum International Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  54. Rebuck, M. (2003). The use of TOEIC by companies in Japan. NUCB JLCC, 5(1), 23–32.Google Scholar
  55. Robb, T. N., & Ercanbrack, J. (1999). The study of effect of direct test preparation on the TOEIC® scores of Japanese university students. TESL-EJ. Retrieved from http://tesl-ej.org/ej12/a2.html
  56. Schedl, M. (2010). Background and goals of the TOEIC® Listening and Reading test redesign project (Compendium Study TC-10-02). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  57. Sewell, D. (2005). The TOEIC: Reliability and validity within the Korean context. Retrieved from http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/Documents/college-artslaw/cels/essays/testing/testing/SewellTesting.pdf
  58. Shohamy, E. (2007). The power of language tests, the power of the English language and the role of ELT. In J. Cummins & C. Davison (Eds.), International handbook of language teaching (pp. 521–532). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  59. Stoynoff, S. (2009). Recent developments in language assessment and the case of four large-scale tests of ESOL ability. Language Teaching, 42.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444808005399.
  60. Suomi, B. (1992). TOEIC test development. In TOEIC steering committee (Ed.), The 35th TOEIC seminar. Princeton New Jersey: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  61. The Japan Times. (2015, May 23). Rakuten forges ahead in English. The Japan Times. Retrieved from http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2015/05/23/editorials/rakuten-forges-ahead-english/
  62. Thomson, S. (2012). The effects of TOEIC on education in South Korean universities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. The University of Birmingham.Google Scholar
  63. Wall, D., & Horak, T. (2006). The impact of changes in the TOEFL examination on teaching and learning in central and Eastern Europe: Phase 1, the baseline study. Princeton: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  64. Wilson, K. M. (1993). Relating TOEIC scores to oral proficiency interview ratings. Princeton: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  65. Wilson, K. M. (2001). Overestimation of LPI ratings for native-Korean speakers in the TOEIC context: Search for explanation. Princeton: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  66. Woodford, P. (1982). TOEIC research summaries – An introduction to TOEIC: The initial validity study. Princeton: Educational Testing Services.Google Scholar
  67. Zhang, S. (2006). Investigating the relative effects of persons, items, sections, and languages on TOEIC score dependability. Language Testing, 23(3), 351–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dawn Karen Booth
    • 1
  1. 1.AucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations