Supporting Strategies for Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion in Higher Education Faculty Hiring

  • Henry F. Fradella


Henry F. Fradella takes a long view of diversity’s role in higher education to present some tried and true “best practices” for creating and implementing both formal policies and informal practices that support diverse and inclusive hiring practices. In doing so, he details how higher education has moved over the past forty years from focusing primarily on the heterogeneity of demographic representation to targeting the integration of diverse employee involvement in all systems and processes. Fradella further discusses relevant legal issues in training search committees, recruiting diverse applicant pools, and supporting efforts to foster inclusion in university activities and communications. Finally, he admonishes those who assign insufficient institutional resources for diverse and inclusive hiring practices, arguing that administrators at every rank can effect positive change.

Works Cited

  1. Alexander, Michelle. 2011. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: New Press.Google Scholar
  2. Allen-Ramdial, Stacy-Ann, and Andrew G. Campbell. 2014. Reimaging the Pipeline: Advancing STEM Diversity, Persistence, and Success. BioScience 64 (7): 612–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alon, Sigal, and Marta Tienda. 2007, August. Diversity, Opportunity, and the Shifting Meritocracy in Higher Education. American Sociological Review 72: 487–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Antonio, Anthony Lising, Mitchell J. Chang, Kenji Hakuta, David A. Kenny, Shana Levin, and Jeffrey F. Milem. 2004. Effects of Racial Diversity on Complex Thinking in College Students. Psychological Science 15 (8): 507–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arizona State University. 2013. Diversity Plan: Building Blocks for Success Through People, Programming, and Policies. Tempe: Office of the Executive Vice President and University Provost.Google Scholar
  6. Banerji, Shilpa. 2005, November 17. Diversity Officers—Coming to a Campus Near You? Diverse Issues in Higher Education 22 (20): 38–40.Google Scholar
  7. Barceló, Nancy. 2007. Transforming Our Institutions for the Twenty-First Century: The Role of the Chief Diversity Officer. Diversity Digest 10: 5–6.Google Scholar
  8. Basit, Tehmina N., and Sally Tomlinson. 2012. Social Inclusion in Higher Education. Chicago: Policy Press/University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beel, Joeran, and Bela Gipp. 2010. Academic Search Engine Spam and Google Scholar’s Resilience Against It. Journal of Electronic Publishing 13(3). Last Accessed 20 Aug 2017.
  10. Bertrand, Marianne, and Sendhil Mullainathan. 2004. Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination. American Economic Review 94: 991–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blau, Judith R., Stephanie Moller, and Lyle V. Jones. 2004. Why Test? Talent Loss and Enrollment Loss. Social Science Research 33: 409–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bollinger, Lee C. 2007. Why Diversity Matters. Chronicle of Higher Education 53 (39): B20.Google Scholar
  13. Breen, Richard, and Jan O. Jonsson. 2005. Inequality of Opportunity in Comparative Perspective: Recent Research on Educational Attainment and Social Mobility. Annual Review of Sociology 31: 223–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burgoyne, Robert, Theodore M. Sawson, Ralph C. Dawson, Rena Scheinkman, Arthur L. Coleman, Jennifer Rippner Winnick, Jamie Lewis Keith, Daryl E. Chubin, and Shirley M. Malcom. 2010. Handbook on Diversity and the Law: Navigating a Complex Landscape to Foster Greater Faculty and Student Diversity in Higher Education. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science.Google Scholar
  15. Chang, Mitchell J. with Daria Witt, James Jones, and Kenji Hakuta. 2003. Compelling Interest: Examining the Evidence on Racial Dynamics in Higher Education. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Chesler, Mark, Amanda E. Lewis, and James E. Crowfoot. 2005. Challenging Racism in Higher Education. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  17. Clayton-Pederson, Alma R., Sharon Parker, Daryl G. Smith, José F. Moreno, and Daniel H. Teraguchi. 2007. Making a Real Difference with Diversity: A Guide to Institutional Change. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.Google Scholar
  18. Dark, Okianer Christian. 1996. Incorporating Issues of Race, Gender, Class, Sexual Orientation, and Disability into Law School Teaching. Willamette Law Review 32: 541–575.Google Scholar
  19. Davis, Laurel R. 2002. Racial Diversity in Higher Education: Ingredients for Success and Failure. Journal of Applied Behavior Science 38: 137–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Duffy v. Wolle, 123 F.3d 1026 (8th Cir. 1997).Google Scholar
  21. Dymski, Garry A. 2006. Discrimination in the Credit and Housing Markets: Findings and Challenges. In Handbook on the Economics of Discrimination 2006, ed. William M. Rodgers, 251–259. Cheltenham: Elgar.Google Scholar
  22. Estrada-Hollenbeck, Mica, Anna Woodcock, Paul R. Hernandez, and P. Wesley Schultz. 2011. Toward a Model of Social Influence That Explains Minority Student Integration into the Scientific Community. Journal of Educational Psychology 103: 206–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Euben, Donna R. 2005. Legal Primer for New & Not-So-New Administrators. Paper presented at the 15th Annual Legal Issues in Higher Education Conference, Burlington, October.Google Scholar
  24. Fisher v. University of Texas, 133 S. Ct. 2411 (2013).Google Scholar
  25. Fishkin, James F. 1998. Do We Need a Systematic Theory of Equal Opportunity? In Equal Opportunity 1998, ed. Norman E. Bowie, 15–21. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  26. Fradella, Henry F. 2007. Integrating the Study of Sexuality into Substantive Criminal Law Courses. Journal of Legal Education 57 (1): 60–76.Google Scholar
  27. Gasman, Marybeth, Ufuoma Abiola, and Christopher Travers. 2015. Diversity and Senior Leadership at Elite Institutions of Higher Education. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education 8 (1): 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gentry, Ruben. 2013. Ensuring That Professors Who Enhance the University Earn Tenure and Promotion. Paper Presented at the National Conference of the National Association of African American Studies, Baton Rouge, February 2013.Google Scholar
  29. Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003).Google Scholar
  30. Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306 (2003).Google Scholar
  31. Gurin, Patricia, Eric L. Dey, Sylvia Hurtado, and Gerald Gurin. 2002. Diversity and Higher Education: Theory and Impact on Educational Outcomes. Harvard Educational Review 72 (3): 330–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hammer v. Ashcroft, 383 F.3d 722 (8th Cir. 2004).Google Scholar
  33. Harris, Anne-Marie G., Geraldine R. Henderson, and Jerome D. Williams. 2005. Courting Customers: Assessing Consumer Racial Profiling and Other Marketplace Discrimination. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 24 (1): 163–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hill v. Ross, 183 F.3d 586, 589 (7th Cir. 1999).Google Scholar
  35. Honadle v. University of Vermont, 56 F. Supp. 2d 419 (D. Vt. 1999).Google Scholar
  36. Hopwood v. Texas, 78 F.3d 932 (5th Cir.), cert. denied, 518 U.S. 1033 (1996).Google Scholar
  37. Hurtado, Sylvia. 2003. Preparing College Students for a Diverse Democracy. In Minorities in the Chemical Workforce: Diversity Models That Work. A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable, ed. Alexis T. Bell, Mary L. Mandich, Paul Anastas, Michael R. Berman, Michelle V. Buchanan, Leonard J. Buckley, Donald M. Burland, Thomas W. Chapman, F. Fleming Crim, et al., 16–35. Washington, DC: The National Academic Press.Google Scholar
  38. Hurtado, Sylvia, Jeffrey Milem, Alma Clayton-Pedersen, and Walter Allen. 1999. Enacting Diverse Learning Environments: Improving the Climate for Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report 26 (8): 3–140.Google Scholar
  39. Impactstory Team. Four Great Reasons to Stop Caring so Much About the H-Index. Last Modified 26 Mar 2014.
  40. Jayakumar, Uma M., Tyrone C. Howard, Walter R. Allen, and June C. Han. 2009. Racial Privilege in the Professoriate: An Exploration of Campus Climate, Retention, and Satisfaction. Journal of Higher Education 80: 538–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jorgenson, Olaf, and Cliff Moon. 2002. Grow Your Own Teachers. Principal Leadership 2 (9): 35–38.Google Scholar
  42. Karafin, Diana L., Vincent J. Roscigno, and Griff Tester. 2009. The Complexities and Processes of Racial Housing Discrimination. Social Problems 56: 49–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Knowles, Majorie Fine, and Bernard W. Harleston. 2009. Achieving Diversity in the Professoriate: Challenges and Opportunities. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.Google Scholar
  44. Kokes v. Angelina College, 220 F. Supp.2d 661 (E.D. Tex. 2002).Google Scholar
  45. Laden, Berta Vigil, and Linda Serra Hagedorn. 2000. Job Satisfaction Among Faculty of Color in Academe: Individual Survivors or Institutional Transformers? New Directions for Institutional Research 105: 57–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lehman, Jeffrey S. 2004. The Evolving Language of Diversity and Integration in Discussions of Affirmative Action from Bakke to Grutter. In Defending Diversity: Affirmative Action at the University of Michigan 2004, ed. Patricia Gurin, Jeffrey S. Lehman, and Earl Lewis, 61–96. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  47. Lin, Phylis Lan. 2011. Service-Learning in Higher Education: National and International Connections. Indianapolis: University of Indianapolis Press.Google Scholar
  48. Logan, John R., Brian J. Stults, and Reynolds Farley. 2004. Segregation of Minorities in the Metropolis: Two Decades of Change. Demography 41 (1): 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. López-Cózar, Emilio Delgado, Nicholás Robinson-García, and Daniel Torres-Salinas. 2012. Manipulating Google Scholar Citations and Google Scholar Metrics: Simple, Easy and Tempting. Arxiv, December 4. Last Accessed 20 Aug 2017.
  50. ———. 2014. The Google Scholar Experiment: How to Index False Papers and Manipulate Bibliometric Indicators. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology 65 (3): 446–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Meyer, Pamela A., Paula W. Yoon, and Rachel B. Kaufmann. 2013. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report—United States, 2013. Center for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 62 (3): 3–5.Google Scholar
  52. Myers, Samuel L., Jr., and Caroline Viernes Sotello Turner. 1995. Midwestern Higher Education Commission Minority Faculty Development Project: Technical Report. Midwestern Higher Education Commission: Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  53. Ottinger, Cecilia., Robin Sikula, and Charles Washington. 1993. Production of Minority Doctorates. Research Briefs 4 (8): 3–14.Google Scholar
  54. Pager, Devah. 2007. The Use of Field Experiments for Studies of Employment Discrimination: Contributions, Critiques, and Directions for the Future. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 609: 104–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Petit v. City of Chicago, 352 F.3d 1111 (7th Cir. 2003).Google Scholar
  56. Phillips, Rhonda. 2004. Recruiting and Retaining a Diverse Faculty. Planning in Higher Education 30: 32–39.Google Scholar
  57. Priem, Jason, Heather A. Piwowar, and Bradley M. Hemminger. 2012. Almetrics in the Wild: Using Social Media to Explore Scholarly Impact. Arvix, March 20. Last Accessed 20 Aug 2017.
  58. Princeton University. 2013. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Diversity. Last Accessed 20 Aug 2017.
  59. Quaye, Stephen John, and Shaun R. Harper. 2014. Student Engagement in Higher Education: Theoretical Perspectives and Practical Approaches for Diverse Populations. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  60. Quintana, Stephen M., A. Wade Boykin, Andrew Fuligni, Sandra Graham, Samuel Ortiz, and Frank C. Worrell. 2012. Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Education: Psychology’s Contributions to Understanding and Reducing Disparities. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, Presidential Task Force on Educational Disparities.Google Scholar
  61. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978).Google Scholar
  62. Roach, Ronald. 2009. A Pipeline to the Tenure-Track. Diverse Issues in Higher Education, April 2. Last Accessed 20 Aug 2017.
  63. Rotherstein, Jesse M. 2004. College Performance Predictions and the SAT. Journal of Econometrics 121: 297–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rowley, Larry L., Sylvia Hurtado, and Luis Ponjuan. 2002. Organizational Rhetoric or Reality?: The Disparities Between Avowed Commitment to Diversity and Formal Programs and Initiatives in Higher Education Institutions. Paper Presented at the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  65. Sacks, Peter. 2000. Standardized Minds: The High Price of America’s Testing Culture and What We Can Do to Change It. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.Google Scholar
  66. Saltmarsh, John, and Edward Zlotkowski. 2011. Higher Education and Democracy: Essays on Service-Learning and Civic Engagement. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Schmitz, Steven A., Steven W. Nourse, and Molly E. Ross. 2013. Increasing Teacher Diversity: Growing Your Own Through Partnerships. Education Digest 78 (5): 59–63.Google Scholar
  68. Sethna, Beheruz N. 2011. Minorities in Higher Education: A Pipeline Problem? Research in Higher Education Journal 13: 1–18.Google Scholar
  69. Shavit, Yossi, Richard Arum, and Adam Gamoran, eds. 2007. Stratification in Higher Education: A Comparative Perspective. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Siegel, David J. 2008. The Use of Outside Voices in Increasing Faculty Diversity. Diverse Issues in Higher Education 24 (24): 36.Google Scholar
  71. Sleeter, Christine E., La Vonne I. Neal, and Kevin K. Kumashiro. 2014. Diversifying the Teacher Workforce: Preparing and Retaining Highly Effective Teachers. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  72. Smith, Daryl G. [2009] 2015. Diversity’s Promise for Higher Education: Making it Work. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Smith, Daryl G., José F. Moreno, Sharon P. Parker, Alma R. Clayton-Pedersen, and Daniel H. Teraguchi. 2006, May. Final Report to the James Irvine Foundation: Building Capacity: A Study of the Impact of the James Irvine Foundation Campus Diversity Initiative.Google Scholar
  74. Smith, Daryl G. 2014. Diversity and Inclusion in Higher Education: Emerging Perspectives on Institutional Transformation. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  75. Smith, Daryl G. with Caroline S. Turner, Nana Osei-Kofi, and Sandra Richards. 2004. Interrupting the Usual: Successful Strategies for Hiring Diverse Faculty. The Journal of Higher Education 75 (2): 133–160.Google Scholar
  76. Smith, Daryl G. with Lisa E. Wolf, and Bonnie E. Busenberg. 1996. Achieving Faculty Diversity: Debunking the Myths. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.Google Scholar
  77. Solorzano, Daniel Gilbert. 1993. The Road to the Doctorate for California’s Chicanas and Chicanos: A Study of Ford Foundation Minority Fellows. Berkley: The Regents of the University of California (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 374-941).Google Scholar
  78. Springer, Amy. 2006, March. How to Diversify the Faculty. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of University Professors, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  79. Sturm, Susan. 2006. The Architecture of Inclusion: Advancing Workplace Equity in Higher Education. Harvard Journal of Law & Gender 29: 247–334.Google Scholar
  80. Taylor, Orlando, Cheryl Burgan Apprey, George Hill, Loretta McGrann, and Jianping Wang. 2010. Diversifying the Faculty. Peer Review 12 (3): 15–18.Google Scholar
  81. Thurgood, Delores H., and Julie E. Clarke. 1995. Doctorate Recipients from United States Universities: Summary Report, 1993. Washington, DC: Doctorate Record Project, National Research Council.Google Scholar
  82. Tienda, Marta. 2013. Diversity ≠ Inclusion: Promoting Integration in Higher Education. Educational Researcher 42 (9): 467–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tierney, William G., and Margaret W. Sallee. 2008. Do Organizational Structures and Strategies Increase Faculty Diversity: A Cultural Analysis. American Academic 4 (1): 159–184.Google Scholar
  84. Trower, Cathy A., and Richard P. Chait. 2002. Faculty Diversity: Too Little for Too Long. Harvard Magazine, March-April. Last Accessed 20 Aug 2017.
  85. Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes. 2003. Incorporation and Marginalization in the Academy: From Border Toward Center for Faculty of Color? Journal of Black Studies 34: 112–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes, and Samuel L. Myers, Jr. 2000. Faculty of Color in Academe: Bittersweet Success. Des Moines: Longwood Division, Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  87. Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes, and Samuel L. Myers, Jr. with John W. Creswell. 1999. Exploring Underrepresentation: The Case of Faculty of Color in the Midwest. The Journal of Higher Education 70: 27–59.Google Scholar
  88. U. S. Census Bureau. 2014. USA: People “QuickFacts.” Retrieved from
  89. United States Department of Education. 2014. Expansive Survey of America’s Public Schools Reveals Troubling Racial Disparities. March 21. Last Accessed 20 Aug 2017.
  90. United States v. Bd. of Trustees of Southern Illinois Univ., Complaint, No. 4:06-cv-04037 (S.D. Ill. filed Feb. 8, 2006). Last Accessed 20 Aug 2017.
  91. University of Denver. 2014. Diversity and Inclusion Initiatives Fund. Last Accessed 20 Aug 2017.
  92. University of Minnesota. 2012. Reimagining Equality and Diversity: A Framework for Transforming the University of Minnesota. Last Accessed 20 Aug 2017.
  93. Walker, Samuel, Cassia Sphon, and Miriam DeLone. 2011. The Color of Justice: Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America. Belmont: Cengage.Google Scholar
  94. Waltman, Ludo, and Nees Jan van Eck. 2012. The Inconsistency of the H-Index. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 63 (2): 406–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Williams, Damon A., Joseph B. Berger, and Shederick A. McClendon. 2005a. Toward a Model of Inclusive Excellence and Change in Postsecondary Institutions. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.Google Scholar
  96. Williams, Richard A., Reynld Nesiba, and Eileen Diaz McConnell. 2005b. The Changing Face of Inequality in Home Mortgage Lending. Social Problems 52 (2): 181–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Williams, Damon A., Katrina C. Wade-Golden, and Mark A. Emmert. 2013. The Chief Diversity Officer: Strategy Structure, and Change Management. Sterling, VA: Stylus.Google Scholar
  98. Wood, Jo Nell. 2013. If we Get You, How Can we Keep You? Problems with Recruiting and Retaining Rural Administrators. The Rural Educator 34 (2): 12.Google Scholar
  99. Wood, Thomas E., and Malcolm J. Sherman. 2001. Race and Higher Education. Princeton: National Association of Scholars. Last Accessed 20 Aug 2017.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henry F. Fradella
    • 1
  1. 1.Arizona State UniversityPhoenixUSA

Personalised recommendations