• Esther Collántes-Fernández
  • Marcelo C. Fort
  • Luis M. Ortega-Mora
  • Gereon ScharesEmail author


The most widely known trichomonad in veterinary medicine is Tritrichomonas foetus. It is the etiologic agent of bovine tritrichomonosis, a sexually transmitted disease in extensively managed herds throughout many geographic regions worldwide. The same trichomonad species is also regarded as the causative agent of chronic diarrhea in the domestic cat, although more recent studies observed molecular differences between bovine- and feline-derived T. foetus. Trichomonosis in cats has a worldwide distribution and is mainly present among cats from high-density housing environments. Other trichomonads are found as inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract in birds, such as Trichomonas gallinae. Particularly, Columbiformes, Falconiformes, Strigiformes, and wild Passeriformes can be severely affected by avian trichomonads. Diagnosis of trichomonosis is often complicated by the fragility of the parasite. To ensure valid test results, it is essential to collect and handle specimens in the right way prior to analysis. Cultivation tests, the specific amplification of parasites, or a combination of both test methods is the most efficient and most commonly used way to diagnose trichomonosis in animals. Bovine tritrichomonosis is mainly controlled by the identification and withdrawal of infected animals from bovine herds. The control of feline and avian trichomonosis relies mainly on preventive measures.


Tritrichomonas foetus Trichomonas gallinae Bovine tritrichomonosis Feline tritrichomonosis Avian trichomonosis 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Esther Collántes-Fernández
    • 1
  • Marcelo C. Fort
    • 2
  • Luis M. Ortega-Mora
    • 1
  • Gereon Schares
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculty of Veterinary SciencesUniversity Complutense of MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Veterinary Public Health GroupNational Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA)AnguilArgentina
  3. 3.Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of EpidemiologyGreifswald-Insel RiemsGermany

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