Trypanosoma

Chapter

Abstract

Pathogenic trypanosomes affecting domestic animals are a major cause of ill-health and death. These pathogens represent a major constraint to economic development in Africa and their negative impact is increasing in South America and Asia. The key issues surrounding the main economically important animal trypanosome species and the diseases they cause in farm animals and pets are presented in this chapter including biology, structure, host-parasite interaction and immune evasion mechanisms. In spite of the fact that many biochemical and molecular aspects of these pathogens have been clearly established, effective control of the diseases they cause has proven unsatisfactory. Control of trypanosomiasis in animals involves disease monitoring and the use of curative and prophylactic trypanocidal drugs although drug resistance is becoming increasingly common. The available and environmentally acceptable vector control tactics are expensive, and reinfestation usually occurs. While vaccines against animal trypanosomes are not available; trypanotolerance, the innate ability of certain livestock breeds to tolerate African trypanosomes and remain productive, has been described as an economical and sustainable option for combating these parasites. Effective control of the great economic burden of trypanosomiasis to developing countries will be accomplished only by the coordinated international support toward better vector control programs and new and safer chemotherapeutic drugs.

Keywords

Trypanosoma Bovine Horse Domestic animals Vector 

References

  1. Alves MJM, Colli W. Trypanosoma cruzi: adhesion to the host cell and intracellular survival. IUBMB Life. 2007;59:274–9.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15216540701200084.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Antoine-Moussiaux N, Biischer P, Desmecht D. Host-parasite interactions in trypanosomiasis: on the way to an antidisease strategy. Infect Immun. 2009;77:1276–84.  https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.01185-08.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Barr SC. Canine Chagas’ disease (American Trypanosomiasis) in North America. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2009;39:1055–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2009.06.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Boulangé A, Katende J, Authié E. Trypanosoma congolense: expression of a heat shock protein 70 and initial evaluation as a diagnostic antigen for bovine trypanosomosis. Exp Parasitol. 2002;100:6–11.  https://doi.org/10.1006/expr.2001.4667.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Caradonna KL, Burleigh BA. Mechanisms of host cell invasion by trypanosoma cruzi. 1st ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2011.Google Scholar
  6. Chaouch M, Mhadhbi M, Adams ER, et al. Development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Leishmania infantum in canine leishmaniasis based on cysteine protease B genes. Vet Parasitol. 2013;198:78–84.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.07.038.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Claes F, Büscher P, Touratier L, Goddeeris BM. Trypanosoma equiperdum: master of disguise or historical mistake? Trends Parasitol. 2005;21:316–21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2005.05.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Delespaux V, Ayral F, Geysen D, Geerts S. PCR-RFLP using Ssu-rDNA amplification: applicability for the diagnosis of mixed infections with different trypanosome species in cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2003;117:185–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2003.08.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Desquesnes M, Bengaly Z, Millogo L, et al. The analysis of the cross-reactions occurring in antibody-ELISA for the detection of trypanosomes can improve identification of the parasite species involved. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2001;95:141–55. doi: 1080/00034980120050251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Desquesnes M, Dávila AMR. Applications of PCR-based tools for detection and identification of animal trypanosomes: A review and perspectives. Vet Parasitol. 2002;109:213–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(02)00270-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Desquesnes M, Holzmuller P, Lai DH, et al. Trypanosoma evansi and surra: a review and perspectives on origin, history, distribution, taxonomy, morphology, hosts, and pathogenic effects. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:194176.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/194176.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Enriquez GF, Bua J, Orozco MM, et al. High levels of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA determined by qPCR and infectiousness to Triatoma infestans support dogs and cats are major sources of parasites for domestic transmission. Infect Genet Evol. 2014;25:36–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2014.04.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Esch KJ, Petersen CA. Transmission and epidemiology of zoonotic protozoal diseases of companion animals. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2013;26:58–85.  https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00067-12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. FAO Programme against African trypanosomiasis. 2016. http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/programmes/en/paat/disease.html.
  15. Franco JR, Simarro PP, Diarra AJJ. Epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis. Clin Epidemiol. 2005;6:257–75.  https://doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S39728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gürtler RE, Cardinal MV. Reservoir host competence and the role of domestic and commensal hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Acta Trop. 2015;151:32–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.05.029.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gurtler RE, Cardinal MV. Reservoir host competence and the role of domestic and commensal hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Acta Trop. 2015;151:32–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.05.029.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Haanstra JR, González-Marcano EB, Gualdrón-López M, Michels PAM. Biogenesis, maintenance and dynamics of glycosomes in trypanosomatid parasites. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1863:1038–48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamcr.2015.09.015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hamill LC, Kaare MT, Welburn SC, Picozzi K. Domestic pigs as potential reservoirs of human and animal trypanosomiasis in Northern Tanzania. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:322.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-6-322.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Hoare C. The trypanosomes of mammals: a zoological monograph. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific; 1972.Google Scholar
  21. Holmes P. Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes—their biology, disease impact and control. J Invertebr Pathol. 2013;112:S11–4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2012.07.014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Horn D. Antigenic variation in African trypanosomes. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2014;195:123–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molbiopara.2014.05.001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Hovel-Miner G, Mugnier M, Papavasiliou FN, et al. A host-pathogen interaction reduced to first principles: antigenic variation in T. brucei. Results Probl Cell Differ. 2015;57:23–46.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20819-0_2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ikede BO, Losos GJ. Pathological changes in cattle infected with Trypanosoma brucei. Vet Pathol. 1972;9:272–7.  https://doi.org/10.1177/030098587200900407.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Jackson AP, Berry A, Aslett M, et al. Antigenic diversity is generated by distinct evolutionary mechanisms in African trypanosome species. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2012;109:3416–21.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1117313109.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Kocher A, Desquesnes M, Kamyingkird K, et al. Evaluation of an indirect-ELISA test for Trypanosoma evansi infection (Surra) in buffaloes and its application to a serological survey in Thailand. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/361037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Losos J. Infectious tropical diseases of domestic animals. Harlow Essex: Longman Scientific and Technical; 1986.Google Scholar
  28. Madeira MF, Almeida ABPF, Barros JHS, et al. Trypanosoma caninum, a new parasite described in dogs in Brazil: aspects of natural infection. J Parasitol. 2014;100:231–4.  https://doi.org/10.1645/13-297.1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Mansfield JM. Nonpathogenic trypanosomes of mammals. In: Kreier JP, editor. Parasitic protozoa, Taxonomy, kinetoplastids, and flagellates of fish, vol. 1. London: Academic; 1977. p. 297–327.Google Scholar
  30. Moloo SK. The distribution of Glossina species in Africa and their natural hosts. Int J Trop Insect Sci. 1993;14:511–27.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742758400014211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Moreno SNJ, Docampo R. Calcium regulation in protozoan parasites. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2003;6:359–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-5274(03)00091-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Morrison LJ, Vezza L, Rowan T, Hope JC. Animal African trypanosomiasis: time to increase focus on clinically relevant parasite and host species. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2016.Google Scholar
  33. Murray M, Murray PK, McIntyre WI. An improved parasitological technique for the diagnosis of African trypanosomiasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1977;71:325–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Naessens J. Bovine trypanotolerance: a natural ability to prevent severe anaemia and haemophagocytic syndrome? Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:521–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2006.02.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Nguyen T-T, Motsiri MS, Taioe MO, et al. Application of crude and recombinant ELISAs and immunochromatographic test for serodiagnosis of animal trypanosomosis in the Umkhanyakude district of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. J Vet Med Sci. 2015;77:217–20.  https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.14-0330.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Njiru ZK, Ouma JO, Enyaru JC, Dargantes AP. Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) test for detection of Trypanosoma evansi strain B. Exp Parasitol. 2010;125:196–201.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2010.01.017.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Njiru ZK, Ouma JO, Bateta R, et al. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification test for Trypanosoma vivax based on satellite repeat DNA. Vet Parasitol. 2011;180:358–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.03.021.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. OIE World Organisation for Animal Health. Trypanosoma evansi infections (including surra). In: OIE manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines (mammals, birds and bees). 7th ed. Paris: Office International des Épizooties; 2008. p. 66.Google Scholar
  39. OIE World Organization for Animal Health. Trypanosomosis (tse-tse transmitted). In: Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals. 2013.Google Scholar
  40. Osório ALAR, Madruga CR, Desquesnes M, et al. Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax: its biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and introduction in the New World—a review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2008;103:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pillay D, Izotte J, Fikru R, et al. Trypanosoma vivax GM6 antigen: a candidate antigen for diagnosis of African animal trypanosomosis in cattle. PLoS One. 2013;8:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ponte-Sucre A. An overview of trypanosoma brucei infections: an intense host-parasite interaction. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:2126.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.02126.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Preußer C, Jaé N, Bindereif A. MRNA splicing in trypanosomes. Int J Med Microbiol. 2012;302:221–4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2012.07.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Sengupta PP, Rudramurthy GR, Ligi M, et al. Sero-diagnosis of surra exploiting recombinant VSG antigen based ELISA for surveillance. Vet Parasitol. 2014;205:490–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.08.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Simpson AGB, Lukes J, Roger AJ. The evolutionary history of kinetoplastids and their kinetoplasts. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:2071–83.  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004032.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Swallow B. Impacts of trypanosomiasis on African agriculture. Nairobi: Int Livest Res Institute; 1999. p. 1–46.Google Scholar
  47. Thekisoe OMM, Coronel-Servian AM, Fukumoto S, et al. Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli infections from Rhodnius pallescens bugs by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82:855–60.  https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0533.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Tsegaye B, Dagnachew S, Terefe G. Review on drug resistant animal trypanosomes in Africa and overseas. African J Basic Appl Sci. 2015;7:73–83.  https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.ajbas.2015.7.2.9370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Van den Bossche P, de La Rocque S, Hendrickx G, Bouyer J. A changing environment and the epidemiology of tsetse-transmitted livestock trypanosomiasis. Trends Parasitol. 2010;26:236–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2010.02.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Vickerman K. The evolutionary expansion of the trypanosomatid flagellates. Int J Parasitol. 1994;24:1317–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wen Y-Z, Lun Z-R, Zhu X-Q, et al. Further evidence from SSCP and ITS DNA sequencing support Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma equiperdum as subspecies or even strains of Trypanosoma brucei. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;41:56–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2016.03.022.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Woo PT. The haematocrit centrifuge technique for the diagnosis of African trypanosomiasis. Acta Trop. 1970;27:384–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. World Health Organization. Control of chagas disease: Second report of the WHO Expert Committee. Geneva: WHO; 2002.Google Scholar
  54. Yaro M, Munyard KA, Stear MJ, Groth DM. Combatting African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) in livestock: the potential role of trypanotolerance. Vet Parasitol. 2016;225:43–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2016.05.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Yoshida N. Molecular basis of mammalian cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2006;78:87–111.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0001-37652006000100010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Consejo Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICET)Buenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Instituto de BiotecnologíaBuenos AiresArgentina

Personalised recommendations