Volcanoes, Refugees, and Raiders: The 1765 Macaturin Eruption and the Rise of the Iranun
This chapter offers a compelling account of the tangled relationship between the history of the Iranun and the eruption of the Macaturin Volcano. Focusing on this little-known eruption, it draws attention to the disastrous events that unfolded afterwards in Mindanao, the Sulu Archipelago, and north Borneo, where the Iranun experienced a subsistence crisis and displacement. The chapter also draws attention to the link between this major eruption and the rise of the displaced Iranun as saltwater slavers in South-East Asia. This case study concludes with a comparison of other eruptions that have threatened human survival and led to an increase in slavery and raiding in different places and eras.