Power Harvesting and Data Exchange Links

Chapter

Abstract

For data exchange of implantable devices, wireless links are unavoidable except for the case when an indwelling catheter or probe is allowed to establish either a direct or close contact with the implantable sensor. Light transmission via optical fibers can offer a solution to accomplish data exchange. However, without a conductive path to the outside world, the environment found inside the human body for the propagation of electromagnetic radiation poses new challenges. The problem of data exchange in implantable sensors only encounters a contender of the same level when sensor powering comes to play, at least for active sensing systems. It is therefore possible to retrieve data from passive sensors with no need for DC powering, as will be discussed later in this chapter. Nevertheless, the vast majority of implantable sensors are still actively powered and the subject of power consumption cannot be overlooked. Low power consumption is of paramount importance in implantables to ensure long-term function of the sensor and patient safety.

List of Acronyms

AC

Alternate current

ADC

Analog-to-digital converter

AM

Amplitude modulation

ASIC

Application specific integrated circuit

ASK

Amplitude shift keying

BPSK

Binary phase shift keying

BSN

Body sensor network

BVD

Butterworth–Van Dyke Model

CMOS

Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor

CW

Continuous wave

DAC

Digital-to-analog converter

DBB

Digital baseband

DC

Direct current

DPSK

Differential phase shift keying

DRAM

Dynamic random access memory

DSSH

Double synchronized switch harvesting

ECG

Electrocardiogram

EM

Electromagnetic

FBAR

Film bulk acoustic resonator

FCC

Federal Communications Commission

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FM

Frequency modulation

FSK

Frequency shift keying

IC

Integrated circuit

IDT

Interdigital transducer

IoT

Internet of things

ISM

Industrial, scientific and medical band

KLM

Krimholtz–Leedom–Matthaei model

LC

Inductor–capacitor circuit

LDO

Low drop output

LED

Light-emitting diode

LPF

Low-pass filter

LSK

Load shift modulation

MEMS

Microelectromechanical system

MES

Miller encoding scheme

MFC

Micro-fibre composites

MICS

Medical implant communication service band

MOSFET

Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor

MPE

Maximum permissible exposure

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

OOK

On-off keying

PA

Power amplifier

PDMS

Polydimethylsiloxane

PCL

Polyprolactone

PLL

Phase-locked loop

PLLA

Polyactide

PM

Phase modulation

PMOS

p-channel MOSFET

PMU

Power management unit

POR

Power-on-reset

PPy

Polypyrrole

PSK

Phase shift keying

PTE

Power transfer efficiency

PUT

Programmable unijunction transistor

PV

Photovoltaic array

PVDF

Polyvinylidene difluoride

PWM

Pulse-width modulation

RC

Resistor–capacitor circuit

RF

Radiofrequency

RFID

Radiofrequency identifier

RLC

Resistor–inductor–capacitor circuit

RX

Receiver

SAR

Specific absorption rate

SAW

Surface acoustic wave resonator

SCR

Silicon controlled rectifier

SDRAM

Synchronous dynamic random access memory

SECE

Synchronous electric charge extractor

SSHI

Synchronized switch harvesting on inductor

TEG

Thermoelectric generator

TX

Transmitter

USB

Universal serial bus

UTET

Ultrasonic transcutaneous energy transfer

UWB

Ultra-wide band

VCO

Voltage-controlled oscillator

WMTS

Wireless medical telemetry service band

WPC

Wireless power consortium

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Hamlyn CentreImperial College LondonLondonUK

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