Controls on Karst Landforms in Florida

  • Sam Upchurch
  • Thomas M. Scott
  • Michael C. Alfieri
  • Beth Fratesi
  • Thomas L. Dobecki
Part of the Cave and Karst Systems of the World book series (CAKASYWO)


Florida’s eogenetic karst development is influenced by groundwater flow, sea level and water table position, sediment mineralogy and fabric, porosity, chemical reactions and geochemical saturation state of the water, residence time, and sediment surface area.

Primary porosity such as intergranular porosity, burrows and borings, intraparticle porosity, and shelter porosity can initially affect the pathways of water flow. Secondary porosity includes potentially extensive, interconnected, moldic porosity, and karstic secondary porosity includes caves and other karst conduits. Diagenetic processes, such as cementation of limestones and dolomitization, may destroy primary and secondary porosity.

Fractures or existing karst conduits provide fast flow routes along which karstification occurs. Photolineament analysis can, with ground truthing, confirm the existence of vertical fractures and faults in basement or overlying rocks. In Florida, photolineament sets occur in two main alignments that are consistent with earth tides.

Bedding planes are often poorly represented but can be dissolutionally enlarged. Epikarst consists of irregular, weathered surfaces exhibiting enhanced porosity and permeability, with cutters, pinnacles, and limestone fragments. Epikarst at unconformities may not relate to sinkhole development.

Reaction rates of groundwater with the carbonate rock are typically slow, and sudden collapse events are usually due to failure of cover materials rather than of the roofs of voids in limestone.

Florida’s epigenetic caves form near the water table when the phreatic surface is stable. In most systems, vadose caves form concurrently with and up gradient from phreatic caves. Many caves reveal evidence of water-table fluctuations driven by climate and sea-level changes.

Some Florida caves have been attributed to mixing-zone dissolution, including caves with large rooms at depth. Evidence is relatively weak for sulfate dissolution-related hypogenetic karst. The dependence of epigenic and freshwater/saltwater mixing zones on sea level creates complex layering of caves with different positions and ages.


Porosity Permeability Dissolution kinetics Photolineaments Fractures Epigenetic karst Hypogenetic karst Rates of dissolution 


  1. Adams PN (2013) A plausible explanation for raised coastal ridges and terraces along the axis of peninsular Florida. Southeastern Geol Soc Guidebook 50Google Scholar
  2. Adams PN Opdyke ND Jaeger M (2010) Isostatic uplift driven by karstification and sea-level oscillation: Modeling landscape evolution in north Florida. Geology, 38:531–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alfieri MC Upchurch SB Dobecki TL (2018, in press). Photolinears, fractures, and fallacies: A post hoc study of photolineaments, Hillsborough County, Florida. Proceedings, 15th Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, Shepherdstown, West Virginia.Google Scholar
  4. Alt D Brooks HK (1965) Age of Florida marine terraces. Jour Geol, 73:406–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Altschuler ZS Jaffe EB Cuttitta F (1956) The aluminum phosphate zone of the Bone Valley Formation, Florida, and its uranium deposits. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 300, pp. 495–504Google Scholar
  6. Altschuler ZS Jaffe EB Dwornik E (1951) The stratigraphy of the upper part of the Bone Valley Formation and Its relation to the leached zone. US Geol Surv Trace Elements Memo Repo 237Google Scholar
  7. Back W Hanshaw BB (1970) Comparison of chemical hydrogeology of the carbonate peninsulas of Florida and Yucatan. Jour Hydro 10:330–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Badon Ghyben W (1889) Nota in verband met de voorgenomen putboring nabij Amsterdam. Tijdschrift van het Koninklijk Instituut van Ingenieurs, The Hague, pp. 8–22.Google Scholar
  9. Bahtijarevic A (1996) Karst landforms in Florida, geomorphological analysis. Master’s thesis, Tampa, Univ South FlaGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnett RS (1975) Basement structure of Florida and its tectonic implications. Trans Gulf Coast Assoc Geol Soc 25:122–142Google Scholar
  11. Beck BF Sayed S (1991) The sinkhole hazard in Pinellas County: A geologic summary for planning purposes. Fla Sinkhole Res Inst Report 90-91-1Google Scholar
  12. Bloom AL (1983) Sea level and coastal morphology of the United States through the Late Wisconsin glacial maximum. In: Porter SC (ed.), Late Quaternary environments of the United States, Volume 1 - The late Pleistocene, pp. 215–229Google Scholar
  13. Bock WD Moore DR Neumann AC Supko PR (compilers) (1969) (reprinted 1994) Late Pleistocene geology in an urban area. Miami Geol Soc, field trip guidebook, accessed at on 3/20/2012.
  14. Broecker WS Thurber DL Goddard J Ku TL Mesolella KJ (1968) Milankovitch hypothesis supported by precise dating of coral reefs and deep-sea sediments. Science, 159:297–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brooks HK (1967) Rate of solution of limestone in the karst terrane of Florida. Fla Water Resour Res Ctr Pub 6Google Scholar
  16. Carr WJ Alverson DC (1959) Stratigraphy of middle Tertiary rocks in part of west-central Florida. US Geol Surv Bull 1092Google Scholar
  17. Cathcart JB (1963a) Economic geology of the Chicora Quadrangle, Florida. US Geol Surv Bull 1962-AGoogle Scholar
  18. Cathcart JB (1963b) Economic geology of the Keysville Quadrangle, Florida. US Geol Surv Bull 1128Google Scholar
  19. Cathcart JB (1964) Economic geology of the Lakeland Quadrangle, Florida. US Geol Surv Bull 1962-GGoogle Scholar
  20. Cathcart JB (1966) Economic geology of the Fort Meade Quadrangle, Florida. US Geol Surv Bull 1207Google Scholar
  21. Clesi D King J (1991) Team Diepolder ’91: Our story. Underwater Speleology, 18(3):7–12Google Scholar
  22. Coniglio M Harrison RS (1983) Holocene and Pleistocene caliche from Big Pine Key, Florida. Bull. Can. Petrol. Geol., 31:3–13.Google Scholar
  23. Cooke CW (1939) Scenery in Florida interpreted by a geologist. Fla Geol Surv Bull 17Google Scholar
  24. Cooke CW (1945) Geology of Florida. Fla Geol Surv Bull 29Google Scholar
  25. Cressler A (1993) The caves of Dade County, Florida. Georgia Underground, 30(3):9–16Google Scholar
  26. Culbreth MA (1988) Geophysical investigation of lineaments in south Florida. Master’s thesis, Tampa, Univ South FlaGoogle Scholar
  27. Cunningham KJ Kluesner JW Westcott RL Robinson E Walker C Khan SA (2017) Sequence stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy, and seismic structures of the lower intermediate confining unit and most of the Floridan aquifer system, Broward County, Florida. U.S. Geol Surv Sci Invest Rept 2017-5109Google Scholar
  28. Cunningham KJ Renken RA Wacker MA Zygnerski MR Robinson E Shapiro AM Wingard GL (2006) Application of carbonate cyclostratigraphy and borehole geophysics to delineate porosity and preferential flow in the karst limestone of the Biscayne aquifer, SE Florida, In: Harmon RS Wicks C (eds.), Perspectives on karst geomorphology, hydrology, and geochemistry—A tribute volume to Derek C. Ford and William B. White, Geol Soc Amer Sp Pap 404, pp. 191–208Google Scholar
  29. Cunningham KJ Sukop MC (2011) Multiple technologies applied to characterization of the porosity and permeability of the Biscayne aquifer, Florida. US Geol Surv Open-File Rept 2011–1037Google Scholar
  30. Cunningham KJ Sukop MC Huang H Alvarez PF Curran HA Renken RA Dixon JF (2008) Prominence of ichnologically influenced macroporosity in the karst Biscayne aquifer: Stratiform “super-K” zones. Bull Geol Soc Amer, 121:164–180Google Scholar
  31. Cunningham KJ Walker C (2009) Seismic-sag structural systems in Tertiary carbonate rocks beneath southeastern Florida, USA: Evidence for hypogenic speleogenesis? In: Klimchouk A Ford D (eds.), Hypogene speleogenesis and karst hydrogeology of artesian basins, Ukrainian Inst of Speleo and Karst Special Paper 1, pp. 151–158Google Scholar
  32. Curl RL (1974) Deducing flow velocity in cave conduits from scallops. Bull Nat Speleol Soc, 36:1–5Google Scholar
  33. Davis RA Jr. (2011) Sea-level change in the Gulf of Mexico. College Station, Texas A&M Univer PressGoogle Scholar
  34. Denizman C Randazzo AF (2000) Post-Miocene subtropical karst evolution, lower Suwannee River basin, Florida. Geol Soc Amer Bull 112(12):1804–1813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. De Rooj GH Cho H (1999) Modeling solute leaching during fingered flow by integrating and expanding various theoretical and empirical concepts. Hydrol Sci – Jour des Sciences Hydrologiques 44(3):447–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dobecki TL Upchurch SB (2010) A multi-level approach to site characterization - C.W. Bill Young Regional Reservoir, Hillsborough County, Florida. In: LoCoco (ed.), Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, Denver, CO, Environ and Engineer Geophysical Soc, pp. 508–516Google Scholar
  37. Domenico PA Schwartz FW (1997) Physical and chemical hydrogeology. 2nd Ed, New York, John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  38. DuChene HR Hill CA (eds.) (2000) Caves of the Guadalupe Mountains. Jour Cave and Karst Stud 62(2):91–108Google Scholar
  39. Duerr AD (1994) Types of secondary porosity in the injection and test wells in southern peninsular Florida. US Geol Surv Water-Resour Invest Rept 94-4013Google Scholar
  40. Ezell J Martin JB Screaton E Brown A Gulley J Spellman P (2012) The effect of flood magnitude on carbonate dissolution rates during spring reversals (abs.). Geol Soc Amer Abst with Prog 44(7):412Google Scholar
  41. Florea LJ (2006a) Architecture of air-filled caves within the karst of the Brooksville Ridge, west-central Florida. Jour Cave and Karst Stud 68(2):64–75Google Scholar
  42. Florea LJ (2006b) The karst of west-central Florida. Ph.D. Dissert, Univ South FlaGoogle Scholar
  43. Florea LJ (ed.) (2008a) Caves and karst of Florida: A guidebook for the 2008 National Convention of the National Speleological Society. Huntsville, AL, Nat Speleo SocGoogle Scholar
  44. Florea LJ (2008b) Geology and hydrology of karst in west-central Florida and north-central Florida. In: Florea LJ (ed.), Caves and karst of Florida: A Guidebook for the 2008 National Convention of the National Speleological Society. Huntsville, AL, Nat Speleo Soc, pp. 225–239Google Scholar
  45. Florea LJ Noe-Stinson CL Brewer J Fowler R Kearns JB Greco AM (2011) Iron oxide and calcite associated with Leptothrix sp. biofilms within an estavelle in the upper Floridan aquifer. International Journal of Speleology, 40(2):205–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Florea LJ Vacher HL (2006a) Cave levels, marine terraces, paleoshorelines, and the water table in peninsular Florida. In: Onac BP Tamas T Constantin S Persoiu A (eds.), Archives of Climate Change, Karst Waters Inst Sp Pub 10, pp. 188–192Google Scholar
  47. Florea LJ Vacher HL (2006b) Morphologic features of conduits and aquifer response in the unconfined Floridan aquifer system, west central Florida. The 12th Symp Geol Bahamas and other Carb Regions, pp. 32–44Google Scholar
  48. Florea LJ Vacher HL (2007) Eogenetic karst hydrology: Insights from the 2004 hurricanes, peninsular Florida. Ground Water, 45(4):439–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Florea LJ Vacher HL Donahue B Naar D (2007) Quaternary cave levels in peninsular Florida. Quaternary Sci Rev 26:1344–1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Florea LJ Vacher HL Oches EA (2003) Karst studies in west central Florida: USF seminar in karst environments. Brooksville, Southwest Florida Water Management District, accessed 9/4/2013 at
  51. Ford DC Williams PW (1989) Karst geomorphology and hydrology. New York, John Wiley & SonsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ford DC Williams PW (2007) Karst hydrogeology and geomorphology. New York, John Wiley & SonsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Freeze RA Cherry JA (1979) Groundwater. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall PubGoogle Scholar
  54. Garman KM (2010) The biogeochemistry of submerged coastal karst features in west central Florida. Ph.D. diss, Univ South FlaGoogle Scholar
  55. Garman KM Garey JR (2005) The transition of a freshwater karst aquifer to an anoxic marine system. Estuaries 28(5):686–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Glass RJ Steenhuis TS Parlange JY (1988) Wetting front instability as a rapid and far-reaching hydrologic process in the vadose zone. Jour Contam Hydrol 3:207–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Glass RJ Steenhuis TS Parlange JY (1989) Wetting front instability: 2. Experimental determination of relationships between system parameters and two-dimensional unstable flow field behavior in initially dry porous media. Water Resour Res 25:1195–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gulley J (2013) On the origin of Florida’s underwater caves. Underwater Speleology, 40(4):10–11, 34Google Scholar
  59. Gulley JD Florea LJ (2016) Caves as paleo-water table indicators in the unconfined Upper Floridan aquifer. Florida Scientist, 79(4):239–256Google Scholar
  60. Gulley JD Martin JB Brown A (2016) Organic carbon inputs, common ions, and degassing: Rethinking mixing dissolution in coastal eogenetic carbonate aquifers. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 41:2098–2110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gulley JD Martin JB Moore PJ Brown A Spellman PD Ezell J (2015) Heterogeneous distributions of CO2 may be more important for dissolution and karstification than mixing dissolution. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 40:1057–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gulley JD Martin JB Moore PJ Murphy J (2013) Formation of phreatic caves in an eogenetic karst aquifer by CO2 enrichment at lower water tables and subsequent flooding by sea level rise. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 38:1210–1224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gulley JD Polk JS (2017) Hypogene karst influences in the upper Floridan aquifer. In: Klimchouk AB Palmer AN Waela JD Auler AS Audra P (eds.), Hypogene karst regions and caves of the world, Springer Intern Publ, Ch. 50, pp. 745–755Google Scholar
  64. Halley RB Evans CC (1983) The Miami Limestone: A guide to selected outcrops and their interpretation. Miami Geol Soc Fieldtrip Guidebook, accessed on 3/20/2012 at
  65. Hanada M (2010) Global sea level in the Messinian Stage of the late Miocene. Inst Oceanic Research & Develop, Tokai Univ, Bulletin 31:65–77Google Scholar
  66. Haslett RC (1989) A study of lineaments and fracture traces mapped on the Crescent City Ridge, Putnam and Volusia Counties, Florida. Masters thesis, Gainesville, Univ FlaGoogle Scholar
  67. Healy HG (1975) Terraces and shorelines of Florida. Fla Bur Geol Map Series 71Google Scholar
  68. Heath RC (1983) Basic ground-water hydrology. US Geol Surv Water-Sup Pap 2220Google Scholar
  69. Hester TC Schmoker JW (1985) Porosity, grain-density, and inferred aragonite-content data from the Miami Limestone, Miami area and lower Florida Keys. U.S. Geol Surv, Open-File Rept 85-21Google Scholar
  70. Herbert TA Upchurch SB (2016) The potential role of hypogene speleogenesis in the lower Floridan aquifer and Sunniland Oil Trend, south Florida, U.S.A. In: Chavez T Reehling P (eds.), Proceedings of DeepKarst 2016: Origins, Resources, and Management of Hypogene Karst, Carlsbad, NM, Nat Cave and Karst Res Inst, Symposium 6, pp. 119–129Google Scholar
  71. Herman JS Back W Pomar L (1985) Geochemistry of groundwater in the mixing zone along the east coast of Mallorca, Spain. Karst Water Resour, IAHS Pub 161, pp. 467–479Google Scholar
  72. Herzberg A (1901) Die Wasserversorgung einiger Nordseebder. Jour fur Gasbeluchtung und Wasserversorgung, 44: 815–819, 45: 842–844Google Scholar
  73. Hester TC Schmoker JW (1985b) Porosity, grain-density, and inferred aragonite-content data from the Miami Limestone, Miami area and lower Florida Keys. US Geol Surv, Open-File Rept 85-21Google Scholar
  74. Hickey JJ (1984) Field testing the hypothesis of Darcian flow through a carbonate aquifer. Ground Water 22:544–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hill CA (1981) Speleogenesis of Carlsbad Caverns and other caves of the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico and Texas. New Mexico Bur Mines and Mineral Resour Bull 117Google Scholar
  76. Hill CA (1990) Surfuric acid speleogenesis of Carlsbad Cavern and its relationship to hydrocarbons, Delaware Basin, New Mexico and Texas. Amer Assoc Petrol Geol Bulletin 74:1685–1694Google Scholar
  77. Hill CA (1995) H2S-related porosity and sulfuric acid oil-field karst. In: Budd DA, Sailer AH, Harris PM (eds.), Unconformities and porosity in carbonate strata. Amer Assoc Petrol Geols Mem 63, p. 301–306Google Scholar
  78. Hill CA (2000) Overview of the geologic history of cave development in the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico. Jour Cave and Karst Stud 62(2):60–71Google Scholar
  79. Hill ME (2008) An evaluation of conduit conceptualizations and model performance. Ph.D. diss, Tampa, Univ South FlaGoogle Scholar
  80. Hills ES (1972) Elements of structural geology. New York, Springer Verlag, 2nd EdCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hine AC (2013) Geologic history of Florida: Major events that formed the sunshine state. Gainesville, Univ Press FlaGoogle Scholar
  82. Hine AC Chambers DP Clayton TD Hafen MR Mitchum GT (2016) Sea level rise in Florida: Science, impacts, and options. Gainesville, Univ Press FlaGoogle Scholar
  83. Hoyt JH (1969) Late Cenozoic structural movements, northern Florida. Gulf Coast Assoc Geol Soc Trans 19:1–9Google Scholar
  84. Hunt CB Hunt AP (1957) Stratigraphy and archeology of some Florida soils. Geol Soc Amer Bull 68:797–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Huntoon PW (1994) Is it appropriate to apply porous media groundwater circulation models to karstic aquifers? In: El-Kadi AI (ed.), Groundwater models for resources analysis and management, Pacific Northwest/Oceana Conf, Honolulu, HA, pp. 339–358Google Scholar
  86. Jennings JN (1985) Karst geomorphology. Oxford, Blackwell Publ, 2nd EdGoogle Scholar
  87. Judson S Ritter DF (1964) Rates of regional denudation in the United States. Jour Geophy Res 69:3395–3401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Klimchouk A (2004a) Caves. In: Gunn J (ed.), Encyclopedia of caves and karst science. New York, Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 203–205Google Scholar
  89. Klimchouk A (2004b) Towards defining, delimiting and classifying epikarst: Its origin, processes and variants of geomorphic evolution. Speleo Evol Karst Aquifers 2(1):1–13Google Scholar
  90. Klimchouk A (2007) Hypogene speleogenesis: Hydrogeological and morphogenetic perspective. Carlsbad, NM., Nat Cave and Karst Res InstGoogle Scholar
  91. Klimchouk A (2009) Principal characteristics of hypogene speleogenesis. In: Stafford KW Land L Veni G (eds.), NCKRI Symposium 1 Adv Hypogene Karst Stud, Carlsbad, NM, Nat Cave Karst Res Inst, pp. 1–11Google Scholar
  92. Klimchouk AB Palmer AN Waela JD Auler AS Audra P (eds.) (2017), Hypogene karst regions and caves of the world, New York, Springer Sci PubGoogle Scholar
  93. Lattman LH Matzke RH (1961) Geological significance of fracture traces. Photogram Eng 27:435–438Google Scholar
  94. Lattman LH Parizek RR (1964) Relationship between fracture traces and the occurrence of groundwater in carbonate rocks. Jour Hydrol 2:73–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lawrence FW Upchurch SB (1976) Identification of geochemical patterns in ground water by numerical analysis. In: Zaleem EA (ed.), Advances in Groundwater Hydrology, Amer Water Resour Assoc, pp. 199–214Google Scholar
  96. Littlefield JR Culbreth MA Upchurch SB Stewart MT (1984) Relationship of modern sinkhole development to large-scale photolinear features. In: Beck BF (ed.), Sinkholes: Their geology, engineering & environmental impact, Rotterdam, B.A. Balkema, pp. 189–195Google Scholar
  97. Lucia FJ (1995) Rock fabric/petrophysical classification of carbonate pore space for reservoir characterization. Bull Amer Assoc Petrol Geologists 79(9):1275–1300Google Scholar
  98. MacNeil FS (1950) Pleistocene shore lines in Florida and Georgia. U.S. Geol Surv Prof Pap 221-FGoogle Scholar
  99. McGee DK (2010) Microbial influences on karst dissolution: The geochemical perspective, with a chapter on assessment of the spreadsheets across the curriculum project. Ph.D. dissert, Tampa, Univ South FlaGoogle Scholar
  100. Miller JA (1986) Hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan Aquifer System in Florida, and in parts of Georgia, Alabama and South Carolina. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1403-BGoogle Scholar
  101. Miller JA (1990) Ground water atlas of the United States: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina. US Geol Surv Hydrol Invest Atlas 730-G, Segment 6Google Scholar
  102. Miller JJ (1998) An environmental history of northeast Florida. Gainesville, Univ Press FlaGoogle Scholar
  103. Mitchell-Tapping HJ Mitchell-Tapping AM Lee TJ Williams CR (1998) Core evidence of sea level high stands in southwestern Florida during the last 5,000 years. In: Treat S (ed.), Proc Charlotte Harbor Public Conf and Tech Symp, Palm Beach, Fla, South Fla Water Mgt Dist, pp. 47–53Google Scholar
  104. Merritt ML (2004) Estimating hydraulic properties of the Floridan aquifer system by analysis of earth-tide, ocean-tide, and barometric effects, Collier and Hendry Counties, Florida. US Geol Surv Water-Resour Invest Rept 03-4267Google Scholar
  105. Missimer TM (1973) Growth rates of beach ridges on Sanibel Island, Florida. Gulf Coast Assoc Geol Soc Trans, 23:383–388Google Scholar
  106. Missimer TM (2002) Late Oligocene to Pliocene evolution of the central portion of the south Florida Platform: Mixing of siliciclastic and carbonate Sediments. Fla Geol Surv Bull 65Google Scholar
  107. Navoy AS (1986) Hydrogeologic data from a 2,000-foot deep core hole at Polk City, Green Swamp area, central Florida. US Geol Surv Water-Resour Invest Rept 84-4257Google Scholar
  108. Neill L Anderson J (2009) Cave divers explore deepest parts of Weeki Wachee Springs. Tampa Bay Times, April 19, 2009 ( springs)
  109. Neumann AC Moore WS (1975) Sea level events and Pleistocene coral ages in the northern Bahamas. Quaternary Res, 5:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Opdyke ND Spangler DP Smith DL Jones DS Lindquist RC (1984) Origin of the epeirogenic uplift of Pliocene-Pleistocene beach ridges in Florida and development of the Florida karst. Geology 12(4)226–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Palmer AN (1984) Geomorphic interpretation of karst features. In: LaFleur RG (ed.), Groundwater as a geomorphic agent, Boston, Allen & Unwin, Ch. 8, pp. 173–209Google Scholar
  112. Palmer AN (1991) The origin and morphology of limestone caves. Geol Soc Amer Bull 103:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Palmer AN (2006) Support for a sulfuric acid origin for caves in the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico. New Mexico Geol Soc Guidebook, 57th Field Conf, Caves and karst of southeastern New Mexico, pp. 195–202, accessed 4-28-2014 at
  114. Palmer AN (2007) Cave geology. Trenton NJ, Cave BooksGoogle Scholar
  115. Parker GG (1955) Geomorphology. In: Parker GG Ferguson GE Love SK and others. Water resources of southeastern Florida, U. S. Geol Surv Water Sup Pap 1255, pp. 127–155Google Scholar
  116. Parker GG Cooke CW (1944) Late Cenozoic geology of southern Florida, with a discussion of the ground water. Fla Geol Surv Bull 27Google Scholar
  117. Parker GG Ferguson GE Love SK and others (1955) Water resources of southeastern Florida, US Geol Surv Water Sup Pap 1255Google Scholar
  118. Pendexter WSS (1996) The influence of media heterogeneities on the development of flow fingers. Ph.D. Diss, Tallahassee, Fla State UnivGoogle Scholar
  119. Pendexter WS Furbish DJ (1991) Development of a heterogeneous moisture distribution and its influence on the evolution of preferred pathways of flow in an unsaturated sand soil. Proc Nat Symp Preferential Flow, Chicago, pp. 104–112Google Scholar
  120. Perkins RD (1977) Part II, Depositional framework of Pleistocene rocks in south Florida. In: Enos P Perkins RD (eds.), Quaternary sedimentation in south Florida, Geol Soc Amer Memoir 147, p. 131–198Google Scholar
  121. Pirkle EC Yoho WH Hendry CW Jr. (1970) Ancient sea level stands in Florida. Fla Bur Geol, Geol Bull 52Google Scholar
  122. Plummer LN (1975) Mixing of sea water with calcium carbonate ground water. In: Whitten EHT (ed.), Quantitative studies in geological sciences, Geol Soc Amer Memoir 142, pp. 219–236Google Scholar
  123. Plummer LN (1977) Defining reactions and mass transfer in part of the Floridan Aquifer. Water Resour Res, 13:801–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Plummer LN Back W (1980) The mass balance approach: application to interpreting the chemical evolution of hydrologic systems. Amer Jour Sci 280:130–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Polk J Brinkman R (2013) Climatic influences on coastal cave and karst development in Florida. In: Lace MJ Mylroie JE (eds.), Coastal karst landforms, Dordrecht, Springer Science, Coastal Res Lib, Book 5, Chapter 15, pp. 317–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Portell RW Hulbert RC (2011) Haile Quarries field guide, Newberry, Florida. Southeastern Geol Soc Guidebook No. 53Google Scholar
  127. Portell RW Means GH Hulbert RC Jr. (2012) SMR Aggregates, Inc., Sarasota, Florida. Southeast Geol Soc Fieldtrip Guidebook 56Google Scholar
  128. Puri HS Vernon RO (1964) Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the classic exposures. Fla Geol Surv Sp Pub 5 (revised)Google Scholar
  129. Randazzo A F (1997) The sedimentary platform of Florida: Mesozoic to Cenozoic. In: Randazzo AF Jones DS (eds.), The geology of Florida, Gainesville, Univ Press Fla, pp. 39–56Google Scholar
  130. Reese RS (2004) Hydrogeology, water quality, and distribution and sources of salinity in the Floridan aquifer system, Martin and St. Lucie counties, Florida. US Geol Surv Water-Resour Invest Rept 03-4242Google Scholar
  131. Rosenau JC Faulkner GL (1975) An index to springs of Florida. Fla Bur Geol Map Series 63 (Revised)Google Scholar
  132. Rosenau JC Faulkner GL Hendry CW Jr. Hull RW (1977) Springs of Florida. Fla Bur Geol Bulletin 31 (Revised)Google Scholar
  133. Runnels DD (1971) Chemical weathering of the Biscayne aquifer, Dade County, Florida. Jour Southeast Geol 13:167–174Google Scholar
  134. Safko PS Hickey JJ (1991) A preliminary approach to the use of borehole data, including television surveys, for characterizing secondary porosity of carbonate rocks in the Floridan aquifer system. US Geol Surv, Water-Resour Invest Rept 91-4168Google Scholar
  135. Scanlon BR Mace RE Barrett ME Smith B (2003) Can we simulate regional groundwater flow in a karst system using equivalent porous media models? Case study, Barton Springs, Edwards aquifer, USA. Jour Hydrol 276:137–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Schmoker JW Halley RB (1982) Carbonate porosity versus depth: a predictable relation for south Florida. Amer Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 66:2561–2570Google Scholar
  137. Schmoker JW Halley RB Meyer FW Robbins SL (1979) Preliminary porosity estimates of south-Florida Cenozoic carbonate rocks based on borehole gravity measurements. US Geol Surv Open-File Rept 79-1652Google Scholar
  138. Scott TM (1997) Miocene to Holocene history of Florida. In: Randazzo AF Jones DS (eds.), The geology of Florida, Gainesville, Univ Press Fla, pp. 57–67Google Scholar
  139. Screaton E Martin JB Ginn B Smith L (2004) Conduit properties and karstification in the unconfined Floridan aquifer. Ground Water 42(3):338–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sellards EH (1909) Some lakes and lake basins. Fla Geol Surv 3rd Ann Rept, pp. 43–76Google Scholar
  141. Slack IJ Rosenau JC (1979) Water quality of Florida springs. Fla Bur Geol Map Series 96Google Scholar
  142. Smith DL Lord KM (1997) Tectonic evolution and geophysics of the Florida basement. In: Randazzo AF Jones DS (eds.), The geology of Florida. Gainesville, Univ Presses Fla, pp. 13–26Google Scholar
  143. Stewart HG Jr (1966) Ground-water resources of Polk County. Fla Geol Surv Rept Invest 44Google Scholar
  144. Stoessell RK Moore YH Coke JG (1993) The occurrence and effect of sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation on coastal limestone dissolution in Yucatan cenotes, Ground Water 31(6): 566–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Tanner WF (1982) High marine terraces of Mio-Pliocene age, Florida panhandle. In: Scott TM Upchurch SB (eds.), Miocene of the southeastern United States, Fla Bur Geol Sp Pub 25, pp. 200–209Google Scholar
  146. Tanner WF (2000) Beach ridge history, sea level change and the A.D. 536 event. In: Gunn JD (ed.), The years without summer: Tracing A.D. 536 and its aftermath, British Archaeol Repts, Intern Ser 872, p. 89–97Google Scholar
  147. Tanner WF Demirpolat S Stapor FW Alverez L (1989) The “Gulf of Mexico” late Holocene sea level curve. Gulf Coast Assoc Geol Socs, Trans 39:553–562Google Scholar
  148. Thrailkill JV (1965) Studies in the excavation of limestone caves and the deposition of speleothems. Ph.D. Diss, Trenton, Princeton UnivGoogle Scholar
  149. US Army Corps of Engineers (2004) Lineament analysis: South Florida Region. US Army Corps of Eng, Jacksonville Dist, Draft Tech Mem, Central and Southern Florida Proj, Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, Aquifer Storage and Recovery Regional StudyGoogle Scholar
  150. Upchurch SB (1992) Quality of waters in Florida’s aquifers. In: Maddox GL Lloyd JM Scott TM Upchurch SB Copeland R (eds.), Florida ground water quality monitoring program -- Volume 2, Background Hydrogeochemistry, Fla Geol Surv Sp Pub 34, Ch. IV, pp. 12–52, 64–84, 90–347Google Scholar
  151. Upchurch SB (2002) Hydrogeochemistry of a karst escarpment. In: Martin JB Wicks CM Sasowsky ID (eds.), Hydrogeology and biology of post-Paleozoic carbonate aquifers. Charles Town, WV, Karst Waters Inst Sp Pub 7, pp. 73–75Google Scholar
  152. Upchurch SB (2017) Hypogene speleogenesis on the Floridan Platform, U.S.A. In: Klimchouk AB Palmer AN Waela JD Auler AS Audra P (eds.), Hypogene karst regions and caves of the world, New York, Springer Int Pub, Ch. 49, pp.735–744Google Scholar
  153. Upchurch SB Dobecki TL Daigle DM (1999) Geological, hydrogeological, and geophysical investigation. In: Law Eng Serv and others, Geotechnical Site Characterization Report – Tampa Bay Regional Reservoir, Volume I, Section 3Google Scholar
  154. Upchurch SB Randazzo AF (1997) Environmental geology of Florida. In: Randazzo AF Smith DL (eds.), Geology of Florida, Gainesville, Univ Press Fla, Ch 13, pp. 217–249Google Scholar
  155. Upchurch SB Strom RN Nuckels MG (1982) Silicification of Miocene rocks from central Florida. In: Scott TM Upchurch SB (eds.), Miocene of the southeastern United States, Fla Bur Geol Sp Pub 25, pp. 251–284Google Scholar
  156. Upchurch SB Taraszki MD Zimmerman J Pyne RDG (1991) Rock-water interactions during aquifer storage and recovery. In: Upchurch SB Moore JE Zaporozec A (eds.), Hydrology and hydrogeology in the ‘90s. Minneapolis, MN., Amer Inst Hydrol pp. 309–319Google Scholar
  157. Vacher HL Florea LJ (2015) Quantitative hermeneutics: Counting forestructures on a path from W.M. Davis to the concept of multiple permeability karst aquifers. Intern Jour Speleol, 44(3):207–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Vacher HL Hutchings WC Budd DA (2006) Metaphors and models: The ASR bubble in the Floridan aquifer. Ground Water, 44(2):144–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Vail PR Mitchum RM Jr. (1979) Global cycles of relative changes of sea level from seismic stratigraphy. In: Watkins JS Montadert L Dickerson PW (eds.), Geological and Geophysical Investigations of Continental Margins, Amer Assoc Petrol Geol, Memoir 29, pp. 469–472Google Scholar
  160. Valentine KWG Dalrymple JB (1976) Quaternary buried paleosols: A critical review. Quat Res 6:209–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Van Kauwenbergh SJ Cathcart JB McClellan GH (1990) Mineralogy and alteration of the phosphate deposits of Florida. US Geol Surv Bull 1914Google Scholar
  162. Vernon R O (1951) Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida. Fla Geol Surv Bull 33Google Scholar
  163. Wentworth CK (1947) Factors in the behavior of ground water in a Ghyben-Herzberg system. Pacific Sci, 1:172–184.Google Scholar
  164. Wentworth CK (1948) Growth of the Ghyben-Herzberg transition zone under a rinsing hypothesis. Amer Geophy Union Trans, 1:97–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. White WB (1988) Geomorphology and hydrology of karst terrains. New York, Oxford Univ PressGoogle Scholar
  166. Wicks CM Herman JS (1995) The effect of zones of high-porosity and permeability on the configuration of the saline fresh-water mixing zone, Ground Water, 33(1–2): 733–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Williams SR (1985) Relationship of ground water chemistry to photolineaments in a karst aquifer. Masters thesis, Tampa, Univ South FlaGoogle Scholar
  168. Willet MA (2006) Effect of dissolution of the Florida carbonate platform on isostatic uplift and relative sea level. Ph.D. Diss, Tallahassee, Fla State UnivGoogle Scholar
  169. Wilson WL (1994) Cave occurrence and ground-water velocities in caves of the Floridan aquifer, Polk County, Florida. Winter Springs, FL, Subsurface Evaluations, Inc.Google Scholar
  170. Winker CC Howard JD (1977) Correlation of tectonically deformed shorelines on the southern Atlantic coastal plain. Geology 5:124–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Wright VP (1986) Introduction. In: Wright VP (ed.), Paleosols, Trenton, Princeton Univ Press, pp. x–xivGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sam Upchurch
    • 1
  • Thomas M. Scott
    • 2
  • Michael C. Alfieri
    • 3
  • Beth Fratesi
    • 4
  • Thomas L. Dobecki
    • 5
  1. 1.SDII Global CorporationLand O’ LakesUSA
  2. 2.SDII Global CorporationHavanaUSA
  3. 3.Water Resource Associates, LLCTampaUSA
  4. 4.Southwest Research InstituteSan AntonioUSA
  5. 5.Dobecki Geosciences, LLCMishawakaUSA

Personalised recommendations