Climate Change and the Sustainable Development of Tourism Within the Caribbean
Caribbean Small Island Developing States’ (SIDS’) growing dependence on tourism has called for a close examination of the many variables that can impact sustainability and viability of the industry. For global tourism policymakers, variations in weather and climate top the list of priority areas for forecasting, planning and are, in some circles, a grave concern. Human-induced changes to long-term climate trends have captured the attention of scholars globally and in modern times climate change has emerged as a critical buzzword at the highest levels of global policymaking. Despite much scepticism over the links between human actions and climate variability and the denial of the global warming phenomenon by some (Björnberg et al., Journal of Cleaner Production, 167(20), 229–241, 2017), undeniable evidence exists to support the view that extreme weather conditions, rising temperatures, rising sea levels, and melting of polar ice caps are as a result of carbon emissions and other harmful side effects of the global industrial complex.
- Baban, S. M. J. (2003). Responding to the Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Fisheries and Tourism in the Caribbean Region Utilizing Geoinformatics. Farm and Business: The Journal of Caribbean Agro-Economic Society, 6(1), 95–111. Retrieved from http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/45795.
- Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility. (2010–2017). Annual Reports. Retrieved from https://www.ccrif.org/content/publications/reports/annual.
- Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility. (2017). About Us. Retrieved May 15, 2018, from https://www.ccrif.org/content/about-us.
- Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency. (2011–2014). Annual Reports. Retrieved from http://cdema.org/annual_reports/.
- CARIBSAVE Climate Change Risk Atlas. (2012). CARIBSAVE Climate Change Risk Profile for The Bahamas. Retrieved from http://intasave.pecreative.co.uk/documents/Publications/Climate-Change-Science,-Policy-and-Practice/The-CARIBSAVE-Climate-Change-Risk-Atlas-(CCCRA)/CCCRA-Bahamas-Summary-Document.pdf.
- Hamilton, J. M., & Lau, M. A. (2004). The Role of Climate Information in Tourist Destination Choice Decision-Making. Working Paper FNU-56. Hamburg University: Centre for Marine and Climate Research. Retrieved from http://www.clima-net.org/docs/elibrary/articles/theroleofclimate.pdf.
- Kirton, M. (2013). Caribbean Regional Disaster Response and Management Mechanisms: Prospects and Challenges. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Caribbean-Regional-Disaster-Response.pdf.
- Lise, W., & Tol, R. S. J. (1999). On the Impact of Climate on Tourist Destination Choice. Working Paper W-99/30. Amsterdam: Institute for Environmental Studies.Google Scholar
- Mimura, N., Nurse, L., McLean, R. F., Agard, J., Briguglio, L., Lefale, P. et al. (2007). Small Islands. In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, & C. E. Hansen (Eds.), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution to the Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report on the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (pp. 687–716). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg2/ar4-wg2-chapter16.pdf.
- Nicholls, R. J., Marinova, N., Lowe, J. A., Brown, S., Vellinga, P., de Gusmão, D., et al. (2011). Sea-Level Rise and Its Possible Impacts Given a ‘Beyond 4 °C World’ in the Twenty-First Century. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 369(1934), 161–181. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2010.0291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Scott, D., Amelung, B., Becken, S., Ceron, J-P., Dubois, G., Gossling, S., et al. (2008). Climate Change and Tourism: Responding to Global Challenges: Advanced Summary. Madrid: UNWTO. Retrieved from https://esa.un.org/marrakechprocess/pdf/davos_rep_advan_summ_26_09.pdf.
- Skerrit, R. (2017, September 25). UNGA 72nd Statement. United Nations. New York. Retrieved from https://gadebate.un.org/sites/default/files/gastatements/72/dm_en.pdf.
- Stern, N. (2006). The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review. Cambridge: Cambridge University.Google Scholar
- Sullivan, M. P. (2017). Hurricanes Irma and Maria: Impact on Caribbean Countries and Foreign Territories. Retrieved from https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/IN10788.pdf.
- Trotz, U. (2014, February 19–20). Climate Change and Environmental Challenges. Paper presented at Tourism as a Key Sector for Development in Island States, Nassau.Google Scholar
- UNFCCC. (2018). The Paris Agreement. Retrieved May 17, 2018, from https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement.
- Uyarra, M. C., Côte, I. M., Gill, J. A., & Tinch, R. R. T. (2005). Island-Specific Preferences of Tourists for Environmental Features: Implications of Climate Change for Tourism-Dependent States. Environmental Conservation, 32(1), 11–19. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892904001808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- World Meteorological Organisation. (2016). Climate Predictions for Small Island Nations: Managing Risks, Maximizing Opportunities. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved from https://library.wmo.int/pmb_ged/wmo_1171_en.pdf.
- World Tourism Organisation. (2008). Climate Change and Tourism: Responding to Global Challenges. Madrid: UNWTO. Retrieved from http://sdt.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/climate2008.pdf.