Advertisement

Sexually Transmitted Infections in Dark Skin

  • Vishal Gupta
  • Adel Botros Zaghloul
  • Somesh Gupta
Chapter

Abstract

The epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is ever-changing and reflects the prevalent sexual behaviors and the health-care services in the community. Knowledge of the various epidemiological factors is essential for designing effective control strategies. Developing nations account for the vast share of STIs, while the STI burden is quite low in the developed world. With the emergence of HIV infection, indiscriminate use of antibiotics, upgradation of health-care facilities at primary level, and success of a syndromic approach to STI treatment, we are currently witnessing a decline in bacterial STIs and a surge in viral infections. This change in the STI trends is common to both developing as well as developed countries. However, our understanding of the epidemiology of STIs in developing nations is limited by lack of good-quality community-based data: most of the data available are institution-based, with surveys in convenient populations like STI clinics or antenatal clinic attendees, which is not representative of the general population.

References

  1. 1.
    Newman L, Rowley J, Vander Hoorn S, et al. Global estimates of the prevalence and incidence of four curable sexually transmitted infections in 2012 based on systematic review and global reporting. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0143304.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Savage EJ, Hughes G, Ison C, et al. Syphilis and gonorrhoea in men who have sex with men: a European overview. Euro Surveill Bull Eur Sur Mal Transm Eur Commun Dis Bull. 2009;14(47).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
    Workowski KA, Bolan GA. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015;64:1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    González-Beiras C, Marks M, Chen CY, et al. Epidemiology of Haemophilus ducreyi infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:1–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sexually transmitted disease surveillance. 2014. http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats
  8. 8.
    Hook EW, Handsfield HH. Gonococcal infections in adults. In: Holmes KK, Sparling PF, Stamm WE, Piot P, Wasserheit JN, Corey L, Cohen MS, Watts DH, editors. Sexually transmitted diseases. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2007.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Unemo M, del Rio C, Shafer WM. Antimicrobial resistance expressed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae: a major global public health problem in the 21st century. Microbiol Spectr. 2016;4(3).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Malhotra M, Sood S, Mukherje A, et al. Genital chlamydia trachomatis: an update. Indian J Med Res. 2013;138(3):303–16.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Workowski KA, Berman S, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010;59(RR-12):1–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Abu-Raddad LJ, Schiffer JT, Ashley R, et al. HSV-2 serology can be predictive of HIV epidemic potential and hidden sexual risk behavior in the Middle East and North Africa. Epidemics. 2010;2:173–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Swygard H, Seña AC, Hobbs MM, et al. Trichomoniasis: clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management. Sex Transm Infect. 2004;80:91–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sorvillo F, Smith L, Kerndt P, et al. Trichomonas vaginalis, HIV, and African-Americans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:927–32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nye MB, Schwebke JR, Body BA. Comparison of APTIMA trichomonas vaginalis transcription-mediated amplification to wet mount microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of trichomoniasis in men and women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200:188.e1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Looker KJ, Magaret AS, Turner KME, Vickerman P, Gottlieb SL, Newman LM. Global estimates of prevalent and incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in 2012. PLoS One. 2015;10:e114989.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gupta V, Bhari N, Gupta S. Genital herpes. http://www.aaus.info/mediawiki/index.php/Genital_herpes
  18. 18.
    Patel H, Wagner M, Singhal P, et al. Systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of genital warts. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:39.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    de Sanjosé S, Diaz M, Castellsagué X, et al. Worldwide prevalence and genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus DNA in women with normal cytology: a meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7:453–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Clifford GM, Rana RK, Franceschi S, et al. Human papillomavirus genotype distribution in low-grade cervical lesions: comparison by geographic region and with cervical cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2005;14:1157–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kumar P, Dar L, Saldiwal S, et al. Intralesional injection of mycobacterium w vaccine vs imiquimod, 5%, cream in patients with anogenital warts: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Dermatol. 2014;150:1072–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Latif AS. The syndromic approach for the management of STIs: an overview. In: Gupta S, Kumar B, editors. Sexually transmitted infections. 2nd ed. New York: Elsevier; 2012.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Amin AR. Enhanced syndromic case management of reproductive tract infection/sexually transmitted infection cases as per National AIDS Control Organization guidelines. Indian J Sex Transm Dis. 2010;31:61–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vishal Gupta
    • 1
  • Adel Botros Zaghloul
    • 2
  • Somesh Gupta
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Dermatology and VenereologyAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Cairo Skin Clinik, VD Hospital, El Haud El Marsoud, Ministry of HealthCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations