Education and Training in Culturally Competent Care

  • Larry PurnellEmail author


The International council of Nurses (ICN) acknowledges the requirement for nurses to receive appropriate initial and ongoing education and training as well as life-long learning to practice competently; other major participants in the planning and direction of nursing education, nursing services, regulatory bodies, and other health related activities are included. Governmental agencies, NGOs, and national nursing associations and organizations are responsible for overseeing and regulating the education of nurses. ICN supports the integration of cultural care knowledge and training for cultural competence into all levels of nursing education (Madden-Styles and Affara, ICN on regulation: towards 21st century models. Global health care is core knowledge, Geneva, 1998). In addition, cultural content is required for all nursing programs.


  1. American Psychological Association (2013) Reflections on cultural humility. Accessed 29 July 2017
  2. Berlin EA, Fowkes WC (1983) A teaching framework for cross-cultural health care: application in family practice. West J Med 139(12):93–98Google Scholar
  3. Bui Y, Turnbull A (2003) East meets west: analysis of person-centered planning in the context of Asian American values. Educ Train Ment Retard Dev Disabil 38:18–31Google Scholar
  4. Cultural Connections for Learning: Cultural Safety (2013) Accessed 29 July 2017
  5. Darwish AFE, Huber GU (2003) Individualism vs collectivism in different cultures: a cross-cultural study. Intercult Educ 14(1):48–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Douglas M, Rosenketter M, Pacquiao D, Clark Callister L et al (2014) Guidelines for implementing culturally competent nursing care. J Transcult Nurs 25(2):109–221CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Eshun S, Hodge D (2014) Mental health assessment among ethnic minorities in the United States. In: Gurung RAR (ed) Multicultural approaches to health and wellness in America, vol 1. Praeger, Santa BarbaraGoogle Scholar
  8. George RE, Thornicroft G, Dogra N (2015) Research paper: exploration of cultural competency training in UK healthcare settings: a critical interpretive review of the literature. Divers Equal Health Care 12(3):104–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Giger J, Davidhizar R (eds) (2012) Transcultural nursing: assessment and intervention, 3rd edn. Elsevier, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  10. Greenfield P, Trunbull E, Rothstein-Fisch C (2003) Bridging cultures. Cult Psychol Bull 37:6–16Google Scholar
  11. Hofstede G (ed) (2001) Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations, 2nd edn. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  12. Hofstede G, Hofstede J (eds) (2005) Cultures and organizations: software of the mind, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Keeskes I (2016) Can intercultural pragmatics bring some new insight into pragmatic theories? In: Capone A, Mey JL (eds) Interdisciplinary studies in pragmatics, culture and society. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Markus HR, Kitayama S (1991) Culture and the self: implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychol Rev 98:224–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. McCullough J, Ramesar S, Peterson H (1998) Psychotherapy in primary care: the BATHE technique. Am Fam Physician 57(9):2131–2134. Accessed 29 July 2017Google Scholar
  16. McFarland M, Wehbe-Alamah HB (eds) (2015) Leininger’s culture care diversity and universality: a worldwide nursing theory, 3rd edn. Jones & Bartlett Learning, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  17. Papadopoulos I (2006) Transcultural health and social care: development of culturally competent practitioners. Churchill Livingstone, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Purnell L (2010) Cultural rituals in health and nursing care. In: Esterhuizen P, Kuchert A (eds) Diversiteit in de verpleeg-kunde [Diversity in nursing]. The Netherlands, Springer UtigeverijGoogle Scholar
  19. Purnell L (2011) Application of transcultural theory to mental health-substance use in an international context. In: Cooper D (ed) Intervention in mental health-substance use. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  20. Purnell L (ed) (2013) Transcultural health care: a culturally competent approach. F.A. Davis, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  21. Purnell L, Fenkl E (eds) (2018) Guide to culturally competent health care. F.A. Davis, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  22. Purnell L, Pontious S (2014) Collectivist and individualistic approaches to cultural health care. In: Gurung R (ed) Multicultural approaches to health and wellness in America, vol 1. ABC-CLIO-LLC, Santa BarbaraGoogle Scholar
  23. Rothstein-Fisch C, Greenfield P, Quiroz B (2001) Continuum of individualistic and collectivistic values. National Center on Secondary Education. Accessed 29 July 2017
  24. Sagar P (2014) Transcultural concepts in adult health courses. In: Sagar P (ed) Transcultural nursing education strategies. Springer Publishing Co. LLC., PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  25. Sedgwick C, Garner M (2017) How appropriate are the English language test requirements for non-UK-trained nurses? A qualitative study of spoken communication in UK hospitals. Int J Nurs Stud 71:50–59. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Singelis TM (1998) Teaching about culture, ethnicity, and diversity. Sage Publications, Thousand OakesGoogle Scholar
  27. Spector R (2009) Cultural diversity in health and illness, 7th edn. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  28. The Joint Commission (2010) Advancing effective communication, cultural competence, and patient- and family-centered care: a roadmap for hospitals. The Joint Commission, Oakbrook Terrace. Accessed 9 Sept 2017Google Scholar
  29. The Joint Commission International (2011) Patients beyond Borders. Accessed 29 July 2017
  30. Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates (2015) Accessed 29 July 2017
  31. Triandis H (2001) Individualism-collectivism and personality. J Pers 69(6):907–924CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of NursingUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA
  2. 2.Florida International UniversityMiamiUSA
  3. 3.Excelsior CollegeAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations