Advocacy and Empowerment of Individuals, Families and Communities

  • Dula Pacquiao


The historical, philosophical, and ethical foundations of patient advocacy and empowerment are presented. These concepts are elaborated using relevant position statements from the World Health Organization, the International Council of Nurses, and the American Nurses Association. Empowerment is viewed as a process and outcome that is closely linked with advocacy. Patient and community empowerment as well as types of advocacy are clustered as individual, organizational, and community/societal levels. The assumptions, processes, and outcomes of patient and community empowerment are drawn from studies from several countries. A special section of research presents barriers and facilitators of empowerment for racial and ethnic minorities and vulnerable populations. A model for culturally competent advocacy and empowerment is used to organize selected strategies. Case studies of patients and populations from three different countries are included.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dula Pacquiao
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of NursingRutgers UniversityNewarkUSA
  2. 2.School of NursingUniversity of Hawaii, HiloHiloUSA

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