Cross Cultural Communication: Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication, Interpretation and Translation

  • Larry PurnellEmail author


Effective cultural communication is a key to establishing trust, obtaining accurate health assessments, and implementing culturally congruent care with patients and their families. Cross-cultural communication includes verbal and nonverbal communication. Verbal communication involves preferred language and dialects, contextual use of the language, preferred greetings, voice volume and tone, health literacy, and the need for interpretation and translation. Nonverbal communication is just as important as verbal communication and encompasses temporality, acceptance of touch, degree of eye contact, facial expressions, and spatial distancing. Sign languages, of which there are numerous ones, are a combination of verbal and nonverbal communication. Recommendations for clinical practice, administration, education and training, and research are included.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of NursingUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA
  2. 2.Florida International UniversityMiamiUSA
  3. 3.Excelsior CollegeAlbanyUSA

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