Advertisement

Clinical Three-Dimensional Anatomy

  • Lawrence C. Y. Ho
  • Michael F. Klaassen
  • Kumar Mithraratne
Chapter

Abstract

The face/head is an elongated hexahedral three-dimensional anatomical structure. Five planes are on view from the front (Fig. 2.1a–c), i.e. two horizontal, two foreshortened side planes and a front plane [1–3]. The “complex” front plane is divided into upper and lower sectors by the orbits; side to side, it is segmented into two “side panels” by the midline mouth/nose complex. Unlike a regular cuboid, the face’s front/side changeover junction angle is 80–85°. This changeover junction line (Fig. 2.1a–c) is not straight and vertical; it is a gently curved oblique line running from forehead temple junction above to the mandible/mental junction inferiorly with a gently narrowing front/side changeover junction as it reaches its caudal destination.

Supplementary material

Video 2.1

Video of Fig. 2.2a (MP4 9343 kb)

Video 2.2

Video of Fig. 2.13 (MP4 2560 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Ho LCY (2000) Rejuvenative facial lipomorphoplasty. Aesthetic Plast Surg 24(4):22–27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ho LCY (2002) Refinements in rejuvenative facial lipomorphoplasty. Aesthetic Plast Surg 26(3):329–333CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ho LCY (2011) Facial optimisation. Chin J Plast Surg 22(11):70–75Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Furnas DW (1983) The retaining ligaments of the cheek. Plast Reconstr Surg 83:11–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mendelson B (2009) Facelift anatomy. SMAS retaining ligaments and facial spaces. In: Aston SJ, Steinbeck DS, Waldon JL (eds) Aesthetic plastic surgery. Saunders Elsevier, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ozdemir R, Kilinc H, Unlu RE et al (2002) Anatomicohistologic study of the retaining ligaments of the face and use in facelift: retaining ligament correction and SMAS plication. Plast Reconstr Surg 110:1134–1149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alghoul M, Codner MA (2013) Retaining ligaments of the face: review of anatomy and clinical applications. Aesthet Surg J 33(6):769–782CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brandt MG, Hassa A, Roth K, Wehrli B, Moore CC (2011) Biomechanical properties of the facial retaining ligaments. Arch Facial Plast Surg 14(4):289–294Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mitz V, Peyronie M (1976) The superficial muscular aponeurotic system (SMAS) in the parotid and cheek area. Plast Reconstr Surg 58(1):80–88CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sterzi G (1910) Il tessuto sottocutaneo (tela sottocuta- nea). Luigi Niccolai, FirenzeGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Richardson W, Carman JB (2009) On the fabric of the human body. Book 11 Chapter X111. Norman Publishing, Novato, CA, pp 167–169. (English translation of Vesalius, A; De humans corporis fabrica, 1543 Bale)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grey H (1858) The anatomy: descriptive and surgical. John W. Parker & Son, London, p 593Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sinnathamby CS (2011) Last’s anatomy: regional and applied. Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier, Edinburgh, p 277Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stringer MD, Mirjalili SA, Meredith SJ, Muirhead JC (2012) Redefining the surface anatomy of the parotid duct: an in vivo ultrasound study. Plast Reconstr Surg 130(5):1032–1037Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hu KS, Kim ST, Hur MS, Park JH, Song WC, Koh KS, Kim HJ (2010) Topography of the master muscle in relation to treatment with botulinum toxin type A. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 110(2):167–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence C. Y. Ho
    • 1
  • Michael F. Klaassen
    • 2
  • Kumar Mithraratne
    • 3
  1. 1.Formerly Repatriation General Hospital ConcordSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Private PracticeAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.The University of AucklandAuckland Bioengineering InstituteAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations