Natural Strategies of Spontaneous Genetic Variation: The Driving Force of Biological Evolution

  • Werner ArberEmail author
Part of the Grand Challenges in Biology and Biotechnology book series (GCBB)


Whereas classical evolutionary studies were based on phenotypic variants of plants and animals, new insights into genetic variation were obtained by molecular genetic experiments with microorganisms. Thereby obtained results revealed that biological evolution is mainly driven by occasional activities of so-called evolution genes. Their products act either as variation generators or as modulators of the frequency of genetic variation. Biological evolution is not driven by errors and accidents, but by a genetically encoded self-organization.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biozentrum University of BaselBaselSwitzerland

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