Urothelial Cancer

  • Andreas Skolarikos


The epithelium covering the pyelocalyceal system of the kidney, the ureter, and the urinary bladder constitutes a common source of human cancer development. Together with prostate, breast, lung, and colorectal cancers, urothelial cancer constitutes the five most common human malignancies [1]. Among urothelial tumors, those originating from the urinary bladder are by far the most common, as they account for the 90–95% of all locations [2]. Upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinomas (UTUCs) originating from the pyelocalyceal system and ureteric epithelium account for the rest 5–10% [1, 3–5]. It is estimated that approximately 10.1/105 men and 2.5/105 women are affected annually by bladder cancer. In comparison, the annual incidence of UTUC is 1–2/105 people, approximately [1–5]. Urothelial carcinoma is highly lethal as 4/105 of men and 1.1/105 of women with bladder cancer will annually die of the disease [6].


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Skolarikos
    • 1
  1. 1.Second Department of UrologySismanoglio Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece

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