Introduction to Renal Cancer

  • Dionysios N. MitropoulosEmail author


Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the third most common genitourinary cancer, and its rate has increased 2% per year for the past 65 years. RCCs are usually solitary but may also be multifocal or even bilateral. Following detection, the diagnostic work-up of renal masses has to characterize their cystic or solid nature, to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, and to provide information about the clinical stage of the disease in case malignancy is suspected. The intensity of the follow-up program for an individual patient is based on the risk of tumor recurrence and includes evaluation of the chest and the abdomen. Assessment of tumor viability could be particularly difficult following application of ablation techniques, and imaging changes have to be further studied and characterized based on the risk of tumor recurrence and include evaluation of the chest and the abdomen. The more frequent and widespread use of cross-sectional imaging has resulted in an increase of the detection of adrenal lesions in patients with no suspicion of adrenal disease. Imaging along with clinical evaluation is critical for the characterization of an incidentaloma as benign or malignant. In contrast to incidentalomas, malignant adrenal tumors are very rare and comprise adrenocortical carcinomas, pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas, and metastatic lesions.


Renal cell carcinoma Adrenal tumors Imaging 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyNational and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical SchoolAthensGreece

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