Ultrasound Findings in Adrenal Cancer
Ultrasound is usually the initial imaging method for evaluation of urogenital cancer. The specific indications for sonographic study include (1) evaluation of small renal masses (3 cm); (2) differentiation of cystic from solid lesions; (3) detection of pseudocapsule in renal cell carcinoma, as echogenic peripheral zone; (4) characterization of complex cystic renal mass; and (5) venous renal tumor extension. Ultrasound is not the appropriate imaging method to stage renal cell carcinoma, because it is not accurate for the evaluation of (1) tumor size in large tumors, (2) perinephric tumor extension, (3) local and regional lymph node enlargement, and (4) spread into contiguous organs. The evaluation of normal adrenal glands and detection and characterization of adrenal masses are quite difficult. Ultrasound permits a clear distinction between urinary bladder wall and bladder urothelial cancer, leading to early detection. In testicular tumors, US is the method of choice for detection and in some cases for characterization of the neoplastic lesions, but CT and MRI are the appropriate methods for staging.