Clinical Implications of Breast Cancer

  • Dimitris-Andrew D. Tsiftsis


In the USA, for 2015 estimated are 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer (BC) and 60,290 new cases of DCIS resulting in 40,290 deaths among women. The same year, about 2350 men were diagnosed with breast cancer and 440 men died from the disease. These figures make BC the leading malignancy in females with a 29% share and second in morbidity with 14% behind only lung cancer. The picture is similar in most Western and developed countries. Although the annual incidence of BC in the USA has a 2% decline between years 1999 and 2005, it is still increasing in developing countries. Encouraging though is the fact that since 1990 death rates decrease worldwide, reflecting the progress made in early diagnosis and treatment. More than 3.1 million US women with a history of breast cancer were alive on January 1, 2014. We live in an era where technological advancement in breast imaging and individualized treatments can and will take this achievement a step further.


  1. 1.
    Yabroff KR, Warren JL (2012) High-cost imaging in elderly patients with stage IV cancer: challenges for research, policy, and practice. J Natl Cancer Inst 104:1113–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kurian AW, Sigal BM, Plevritis SK (2010) Survival analysis of cancer risk reduction strategies for BRCA ½ mutation carriers. J Clin Oncol 28:222–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Houssami N, Hayes DF (2009) Review of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in breast cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 59:290–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vidal-Sicart S, Olmos RV (2012) Sentinel node mapping for breast cancer: current situation. J Oncol 2012:361341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhu A, Lee D, Shim H (2011) Metabolic positron emission tomography imaging in cancer detection and therapy response. Semin Oncol 38:55–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Robertson C, Arcot Ragupathy SK, Boachie C et al (2011) The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different surveillance mammography regiments after the treatment for primary breast cancer. Health Technol Assess 15:1–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jørgensen KJ, Gøtzsche PC, Kalager M, Zahl PH (2017) Breast cancer screening in Denmark: a cohort study of tumor size and overdiagnosis. Ann Intern Med 166(5):313–323. [Epub ahead of print]CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dimitris-Andrew D. Tsiftsis
    • 1
  1. 1.Hygeia Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center of AthensMarousiGreece

Personalised recommendations