Advertisement

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Intimate Relationships and Sexuality

  • J. J. Sandra Kooij
Chapter
Part of the Trends in Andrology and Sexual Medicine book series (TASM)

Abstract

The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder that starts in childhood and persists in the majority of cases into adulthood. In adults with ADHD, intimate relationships may be problematic. Due to the lifetime symptoms of ADHD like inattentiveness, forgetfulness, mood swings and anger outbursts, as well as sensation seeking, impulsive and aggressive behaviour, some do not manage to start, others not to maintain relationships. The characteristics of relationships in adults with ADHD, including sexual relationships, will be discussed in this chapter.

References

  1. 1.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Michielsen M, Semeijn E, Comijs HC, van de Ven P, Beekman AT, Deeg DJ, Kooij JJ. Prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in older adults in The Netherlands. Br J Psychiatry. 2012;201(4):298–305.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rubia K, Alegría AA, Brinson H. Brain abnormalities in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review. Rev Neurol. 2014;58(Suppl 1):S3–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rubia K, Alegria A, Brinson H. Imaging the ADHD brain: disorder-specificity, medication effects and clinical translation. Expert Rev Neurother. 2014;14(5):519–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Simon V, Czobor P, Bálint S, Mészáros A, Bitter I. Prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;194(3):204–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Biederman J, Faraone SV, Spencer T, Wilens T, Norman D, Lapey KA, Mick E, Lehman BK, Doyle A. Patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, cognition, and psychosocial functioning in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150(12):1792–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bijlenga D, van der Heijden KB, Breuk M, van Someren EJ, Lie ME, Boonstra AM, Swaab HJ, Kooij JJ. Associations between sleep characteristics, seasonal depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and ADHD symptoms in adults. J Atten Disord. 2013;17(3):261–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kooij JJS. Adult ADHD: diagnostic assessment and treatment. 3rd ed. London: Springer; 2012.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Robin LA. The impact of ADHD on marriage. ADHD Rep. 2002;10(3):9–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Greenfield B, Hechtman L, Stehli A, Wigal T. Sexual maturation among youth with ADHD and the impact of stimulant medication. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014;23(9):835–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barkley RA, Fischer M, Smallish L, Fletcher K. Young adult outcome of hyperactive children: adaptive functioning in major life activities. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;45(2):192–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Flory K, Molina BS, Pelham WE Jr, Gnagy E, Smith B. Childhood ADHD predicts risky sexual behavior in young adulthood. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2006;35(4):571–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Van Veen MM, Kooij JJ, Boonstra AM, Gordijn MC, Van Someren EJ. Delayed circadian rhythm in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and chronic sleep-onset insomnia. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;67(11):1091–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Canu WH, Carlson CL. Differences in heterosocial behavior and outcomes of ADHD-symptomatic subtypes in a college sample. J Atten Disord. 2003;6(3):123–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bijlenga D, Vroege JA, Stammen AJM, Breuk M, Boonstra AM, van der Rhee K, et al. Prevalence of sexual disorders in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. 2018;10:87–96.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-017-0237-6.
  16. 16.
    Strang JF, Kenworthy L, Dominska A, Sokoloff J, Kenealy LE, Berl M, et al. Increased gender variance in autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Sex Behav. 2014;43(8):1525–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    McLeer SV, Callaghan M, Henry D, Wallen J. Psychiatric disorders in sexually abused children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1994;33(3):313–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Merry SN, Andrews LK. Psychiatric status of sexually abused children 12 months after disclosure of abuse. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1994;33(7):939–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ouyang L, Fang X, Mercy J, Perou R, Grosse SD. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and child maltreatment: a population-based study. J Pediatr. 2008;153(6):851–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Briscoe-Smith AM, Hinshaw SP. Linkages between child abuse and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in girls: behavioral and social correlates. Child Abuse Negl. 2006;30(11):1239–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rucklidge JJ, Brown DL, Crawford S, Kaplan BJ. Retrospective reports of childhood trauma in adults with ADHD. J Atten Disord. 2006;9(4):631–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bryer JB, Nelson BA, Miller JB, Krol PA. Childhood sexual and physical abuse as factors in adult psychiatric illness. Am J Psychiatry. 1987;144(11):1426–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    JJS K. ADHD in adults. In: Clinical studies on assessment and treatment. Thesis. Amsterdam: Harcourt Assessment BV; 2006.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zanarini MC, Williams AA, Lewis RE, Reich RB, Vera SC, Marino MF, et al. Reported pathological childhood experiences associated with the development of borderline personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154(8):1101–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR, Reich DB, Hennen J, Silk KR. Adult experiences of abuse reported by borderline patients and Axis II comparison subjects over six years of prospective follow-up. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2005;193(6):412–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Guendelman MD, Ahmad S, Meza JI, Owens EB, Hinshaw SP. Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder predicts intimate partner victimization in young women. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2015;44(1):155–66.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-9984-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Snyder JA. The link between ADHD and the risk of sexual victimization among college women: expanding the lifestyles/routine activities framework. Violence Against Women. 2015;21(11):1364–84.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801215593647.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wymbs B, Molina B, Pelham W, Cheong J, Gnagy E, Belendiuk K, et al. Risk of intimate partner violence among young adult males with childhood ADHD. J Atten Disord. 2012;16(5):373–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fang X, Massetti GM, Ouyang L, Grosse SD, Mercy JA. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and young adult intimate partner violence. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67(11):1179–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Blocher D, Henkel K, Retz W, Retz-Junginger P, Thome J, Rosler M. Symptoms from the spectrum of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in sexual delinquents. [German]. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2001;69(10):453–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kafka MP, Prentky RA. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in males with paraphilias and paraphilia-related disorders: a comorbidity study. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59(7):388–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kafka MP, Hennen J. A DSM-IV Axis I comorbidity study of males (n = 120) with paraphilias and paraphilia-related disorders. Sex Abus. 2002;14(4):349–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kafka MP, Hennen J. Psychostimulant augmentation during treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in men with paraphilias and paraphilia-related disorders: a case series. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61(9):664–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.PsyQ Expertise Center Adult ADHDThe HagueThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations