Ramming the atmosphere

  • David J. Shayler
Part of the Springer Praxis Books book series (PRAXIS)


“On the basis of first-look information,

we foresee no trouble that will hold up

the first manned mission.”

Charles W. Mathews,

Gemini Program Manager,

GT-2 post-flight comments, January 19, 1965.


  1. 1.
    Gemini 2 Press Kit, December 4, 1964, NASA News Release No. 64-296Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Information courtesy Manfred ‘Dutch’ C. von Ehrenfried, via email, February 26, 2017Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cape Kennedy Spared Cleo’s Fury; GT-2 Delay May Be Extended, Space News Roundup, MSC, Volume 3, No. 23, September 2, 1964, p. 1Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A far more detailed account of the life and loss of Ted Freeman can be found in A Routine Training Flight by Colin Burgess in Fallen Astronauts, Heroes Who Died Reaching for the Moon, Colin Burgess and Kate Doolan, with Bert Vis, University of Nebraska Press, 2003, pp. 1-31.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    MSC Crew at Cape Tests GT-2 Operational Procedures, Space News Roundup, Volume 3, No. 21, August 5, 1964, p. 2.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    MCC at Cape Kennedy Readied for Gemini, MSC Space News Roundup, Volume 3, No. 22, August 19, 1964, p. 5Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    On the Shoulders of Titans, Chapter 9: A Taste of Success, NASA SP -4203, 1977, Barton C. Hacker and James M. Grimwood, p. 206.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Titan Shut Down Postpones GT-2 Flight ‘Till Early 1965, Space News Roundup, Volume 4 No. 5, December 23, 1964, p. 2.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Flight: My Life in Mission Control, Christopher Kraft and James Schefter, 2002 edition, p. 205.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Engineers Explain Cause of GT-2 Abort in December’s Unsuccessful Launch Attempt, MSC Roundup, Volume 4, No. 8, February 3, 1965, p. 5; On the Shoulders of Titans, p. 207; also, GT-2 Launch Attempt Summary, Appendix B, Section 13, Gemini Program Mission Report, GT-2, February 1965, MSC-G-R-65-1.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gemini, Virgil I ‘Gus’ Grissom, Macmillan, 1968, p. 4Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Failure is not an Option, Gene Kranz, Simon & Schuster, 2000, p. 126Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Manned Space Flight Network Performance Analysis For the GT-2 Mission, Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland, May 14, 1965, X-552-65-204 (NASA TMX-55227).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
    NASA Project Gemini Familiarization Manual, Long Range and Modified Configurations, SEDR 300, Volume 1, McDonnell September 30, 1965; also, Gemini Design Features, William J. Blatz, Senior Project Engineer, Gemini, McDonnell Aircraft Corporation, 1963 document, and NASA Gemini 1965-1966 Owners Workshop Manual, David Woods and David M. Harland, Haynes Publishing, 2015.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Further background information on the naval recovery of Gemini 2 can be found in: Task Force 140 Makes Test Run: Picking up Gemini, in ALL HANDS, The Bureau of Naval Personnel, Career Publication, April 1965, Number 579, pp. 10-15.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gemini Program Mission Report GT-2, February 1965, MSC-G-R-65-1.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1965, pp. 23-24Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    MSFN Performance Analysis GT-2, May 14, 1965, p. 48.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. Shayler
    • 1
  1. 1.Astro Info Service Ltd.HalesowenUK

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