Manual of Intravenous and Subcutaneous IgG Indications in Autoimmune Diseases



This manual is a brief summary of extensive reviews of the literature extracted from PubMed and a recent review by Perez et al. (2017), which mainly categorizes the indications according to FDA/EMA approvals and evidence-based findings.


  1. Adamski H, Bedane C, Bonnevalle A, Thomas P, Peyron JL, Rouchouse B, Cambazard F, Jeanmougin M, Viguier M. Solar urticaria treated with intravenous immunoglobulins. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;65(2):336–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alabdali M, Barnett C, Katzberg H, Breiner A, Bril V. Intravenous immunoglobulin as treatment for myasthenia gravis: current evidence and outcomes. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2014;10(12):1659–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alejandria MM, Lansang MA, Dans LF, Mantaring JB. Intravenous immunoglobulin for treating sepsis and septic shock. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;1:CD001090.Google Scholar
  4. Alejandria MM, Lansang MA, Dans LF, Mantaring JB 3rd. Intravenous immunoglobulin for treating sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;9:CD001090. Review.Google Scholar
  5. Asano Y, Ihn H, Maekawa T, Kadono T, Tamaki K. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin infusion in polyarteritis nodosa: report on one case and review of the literature. Clin Rheumatol. 2006;25(3):396–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Asherson RA, Cervera R, de Groot PG, Erkan D, Boffa MC, Piette JC, Khamashta MA, Shoenfeld Y, Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome Registry Project Group. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: international consensus statement on classification criteria and treatment guidelines. Lupus. 2003;12(7):530–4. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ata B, Tan SL, Shehata F, Holzer H, Buckett W. A systematic review of intravenous immunoglobulin for treatment of unexplained recurrent miscarriage. Fertil Steril. 2011;95(3):1080–5.e1-2. Epub 2011 Jan 12. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Balfour-Lynn IM, Mohan U, Bush A, Rosenthal M. Intravenous immunoglobulin for cystic fibrosis lung disease: a case series of 16 children. Arch Dis Child. 2004;89(4):315–9.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berger M. Subcutaneous administration of IgG. Immunol Allergy Clin N Am. 2008;28(4):779–802, viii.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bidier M, Zschoche C, Gholam P, Enk AH, Hadaschik EN. Scleromyxoedema: clinical follow-up after successful treatment with high-dose immunoglobulins reveals different long-term outcomes. Acta Derm Venereol. 2012;92(4):408–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Billiau AD, Witters P, Ceulemans B, Kasran A, Wouters C, Lagae L. Intravenous immunoglobulins in refractory childhood-onset epilepsy: effects on seizure frequency, EEG activity, and cerebrospinal fluid cytokine profile. Epilepsia. 2007;48(9):1739–49. Epub 2007 May 23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Boom V, Anton J, Lahdenne P, Quartier P, Ravelli A, Wulffraat NM, Vastert SJ. Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment of macrophage activation syndrome in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Pediatr Rheumatol. 2015;13:55. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Breda L, Franchini S, Marzetti V, Chiarelli F. Intravenous immunoglobulins for cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa resistant to conventional treatment. Scand J Rheumatol. 2016;45(2):169–70. Epub 2015 Nov 3. No abstract available.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Breedveld FC, Brand A, van Aken WG. High dose intravenous gamma globulin for Felty’s syndrome. J Rheumatol. 1985;12(4):700–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Burton SA, Amir N, Asbury A, Lange A, Hardinger KL. Treatment of antibody-mediated rejection in renal transplant patients: a clinical practice survey. Clin Transpl. 2015;29(2):118–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cherin P, Belizna C, Cartry O, Lascu-Dubos G, de Jaeger C, Delain JC, Crave JC, Hachulla E. Long-term subcutaneous immunoglobulin use in inflammatory myopathies: a retrospective review of 19 cases. Autoimmun Rev. 2016;15(3):281–6. Epub 2015 Dec 12. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cherqaoui B, Chausset A, Stephan JL, Merlin E. Intravenous immunoglobulins for severe gastrointestinal involvement in pediatric Henoch-Schönlein purpura: a French retrospective study. Arch Pediatr. 2016;23(6):584–90. Epub 2016 Apr 26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Crabol Y, Terrier B, Rozenberg F, Pestre V, Legendre C, Hermine O, Montagnier-Petrissans C, Guillevin L, Mouthon L, Groupe d’experts de l’Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for pure red cell aplasia related to human parvovirus b19 infection: a retrospective study of 10 patients and review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(7):968–77. Epub 2012 Dec 12. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Crickx E, Machelart I, Lazaro E, Kahn JE, Cohen-Aubart F, Martin T, Mania A, Hatron PY, Hayem G, Blanchard-Delaunay C, de Moreuil C, Le Guenno G, Vandergheynst F, Maurier F, Crestani B, Dhote R, Silva NM, Ollivier Y, Mehdaoui A, Godeau B, Mariette X, Cadranel J, Cohen P, Puéchal X, Le Jeunne C, Mouthon L, Guillevin L, Terrier B, French Vasculitis Study Group. Intravenous immunoglobulin as an immunomodulating agent in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides: a French nationwide study of ninety-two patients. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68(3):702–12. Scholar
  20. Crowley JC, Gropper MA. IV immunoglobulin: a useful tool for the severe pneumonia toolbox? Crit Care Med. 2016;44(1):250–1. No abstract available.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dalakas MC, Illa I, Dambrosia JM, Soueidan SA, Stein DP, Otero C, Dinsmore ST, McCrosky S. A controlled trial of high-dose intravenous immune globulin infusions as treatment for dermatomyositis. N Engl J Med. 1993;329(27):1993–2000.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dalakas MC. Immunopathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies. Ann Neurol. 1995;37(Suppl 1):S74–86. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dalakas MC. The role of IVIg in the treatment of patients with stiff person syndrome and other neurological diseases associated with anti-GAD antibodies. J Neurol. 2005;252(Suppl 1):I19–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dalakas MC, Medscape. Advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment of CIDP. Nat Rev Neurol. 2011;7(9):507–17. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dalakas MC. Inflammatory muscle diseases. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(18):1734–47. Review. No abstract available.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Deener A, Mehra A, Bernstein L, Shliozberg J, Rubinstein A. Intravenous gammaglobulin treatment in HIV-1 infection. Immunol Allergy Clin N Am. 2008;28(4):851–9. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dennert R, Velthuis S, Schalla S, Eurlings L, van Suylen RJ, van Paassen P, Tervaert JW, Wolffs P, Goossens VJ, Bruggeman C, Waltenberger J, Crijns HJ, Heymans S. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for patients with idiopathic cardiomyopathy and endomyocardial biopsy-proven high PVB19 viral load. Antivir Ther. 2010;15(2):193–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Di Rosa R, Pietrosanti M, Luzi G, Salemi S, D’Amelio R. Polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin: an important additional strategy in sepsis? Eur J Intern Med. 2014;25(6):511–6. Epub 2014 May 27. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Dodel R, Rominger A, Bartenstein P, Barkhof F, Blennow K, Förster S, Winter Y, Bach JP, Popp J, Alferink J, Wiltfang J, Buerger K, Otto M, Antuono P, Jacoby M, Richter R, Stevens J, Melamed I, Goldstein J, Haag S, Wietek S, Farlow M, Jessen F. Intravenous immunoglobulin for treatment of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding trial. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12(3):233–43.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Eftimov F, Winer JB, Vermeulen M, de Haan R, van Schaik IN. Intravenous immunoglobulin for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;1:CD001797. Review. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;12:CD001797.Google Scholar
  31. Eleftheriou D, Brogan PA. Therapeutic advances in the treatment of vasculitis. Pediatr Rheumatol. 2016;14(1):26. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Enk A, Hadaschik E, Eming R, Fierlbeck G, French L, Girolomoni G, Hertl M, Jolles S, Karpati S, Steinbrink K, Stingl G, Volc-Platzer B, Zillikens D. European guidelines (S1) on the use of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin in dermatology. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2017;15(2):228–41. Epub 2016 Dec 30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fagbemi AA, Torrente F, Hilson AJ, Thomson MA, Heuschkel RB, Murch SH. Massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage in isolated intestinal Henoch-Schonlein purpura with response to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion. Eur J Pediatr. 2007;166(9):915–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fazekas F, Lublin FD, Li D, Freedman MS, Hartung HP, Rieckmann P, Sørensen PS, Maas-Enriquez M, Sommerauer B, Hanna K, PRIVIG Study Group; UBC MS/MRI Research Group. Intravenous immunoglobulin in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a dose-finding trial. Neurology. 2008;71(4):265–71. Scholar
  35. Gajdos P, Chevret S, Toyka KV. Intravenous immunoglobulin for myasthenia gravis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12:CD002277. Review.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hahn AF, Beydoun SR, Lawson V, IVIG in MMN Study Team, Oh M, Empson VG, Leibl H, Ngo LY, Gelmont D, Koski CL. A controlled trial of intravenous immunoglobulin in multifocal motor neuropathy. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2013;18(4):321–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Harbo T, Andersen H, Jakobsen J. Long-term therapy with high doses of subcutaneous immunoglobulin in multifocal motor neuropathy. Neurology. 2010;75(15):1377–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hart YM, Cortez M, Andermann F, Hwang P, Fish DR, Dulac O, Silver K, Fejerman N, Cross H, Sherwin A, et al. Medical treatment of Rasmussen’s syndrome (chronic encephalitis and epilepsy): effect of high-dose steroids or immunoglobulins in 19 patients. Neurology. 1994;44(6):1030–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Heinze E. Immunoglobulins in children with autoimmune diabetes mellitus. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1996;14(Suppl 15):S99–102. Review.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Huang YC, Li YC, Chen TJ. The efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Dermatol. 2012;167(2):424–32. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hughes RA, Donofrio P, Bril V, Dalakas MC, Deng C, Hanna K, Hartung HP, Latov N, Merkies IS, van Doorn PA, ICE Study Group. Intravenous immune globulin (10% caprylate-chromatography purified) for the treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (ICE study): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7(2):136–44. Erratum in: Lancet Neurol. 2008 Sep;7(9):771.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hughes RA, Swan AV, Raphaël JC, Annane D, van Koningsveld R, van Doorn PA. Immunotherapy for Guillain-Barré syndrome: a systematic review. Brain. 2007;130(Pt 9):2245–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hughes RA, Swan AV, van Doorn PA. Intravenous immunoglobulin for Guillain-Barré syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;9:CD002063.Google Scholar
  44. Imbach P, Lazarus AH, Kühne T. Intravenous immunoglobulins induce potentially synergistic immunomodulations in autoimmune disorders. Vox Sang. 2010;98(3 Pt 2):385–94. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Jayne DR, Esnault VL, Lockwood CM. ANCA anti-idiotype antibodies and the treatment of systemic vasculitis with intravenous immunoglobulin. J Autoimmun. 1993;6(2):207–19. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Jee SJ, Kim JH, Baek HS, Lee HB, Oh JW. Long-term efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for moderate to severe childhood atopic dermatitis. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2011;3(2):89–95.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Jolles S, Hughes J. Use of IGIV in the treatment of atopic dermatitis, urticaria, scleromyxedema, pyoderma gangrenosum, psoriasis, and pretibial myxedema. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006;6(4):579–91. Epub 2005 Dec 13. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kahaly G, Pitz S, Müller-Forell W, Hommel G. Randomized trial of intravenous immunoglobulins versus prednisolone in Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Clin Exp Immunol. 1996;106(2):197–202.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kerr JR, Cunniffe VS, Kelleher P, Bernstein RM, Bruce IN. Successful intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in 3 cases of parvovirus B19-associated chronic fatigue syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36(9):e100–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kobayashi T, Saji T, Otani T, Takeuchi K, Nakamura T, Arakawa H, Kato T, Hara T, Hamaoka K, Ogawa S, Miura M, Nomura Y, Fuse S, Ichida F, Seki M, Fukazawa R, Ogawa C, Furuno K, Tokunaga H, Takatsuki S, Hara S, Morikawa A, RAISE study group investigators. Efficacy of immunoglobulin plus prednisolone for prevention of coronary artery abnormalities in severe Kawasaki disease (RAISE study): a randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoints trial. Lancet. 2012;379(9826):1613–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Léger JM, Chassande B, Musset L, Meininger V, Bouche P, Baumann N. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in multifocal motor neuropathy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Brain. 2001;124(Pt 1):145–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Levy Y, George J, Fabbrizzi F, Rotman P, Paz Y, Shoenfeld Y. Marked improvement of Churg-Strauss vasculitis with intravenous gammaglobulins. South Med J. 1999;92(4):412–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Liebman HA, Weitz IC. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Med Clin North Am. 2017;101(2):351–9. Epub 2016 Dec 14. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Ljungman P, Engelhard D, Link H, Biron P, Brandt L, Brunet S, Cordonnier C, Debusscher L, de Laurenzi A, Kolb HJ, et al. Treatment of interstitial pneumonitis due to cytomegalovirus with ganciclovir and intravenous immune globulin: experience of European Bone Marrow Transplant Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;14(4):831–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Lünemann JD, Nimmerjahn F, Dalakas MC. Intravenous immunoglobulin in neurology—mode of action and clinical efficacy. Nat Rev Neurol. 2015;11(2):80–9. Epub 2015 Jan 6. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Magraner MJ, Coret F, Casanova B. The effect of intravenous immunoglobulin on neuromyelitis optica. Neurologia. 2013;28(2):65–72. Epub 2012 Jul 28. English, Spanish.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Mariotti J, Caberlon S, Bertinato E, Podda G, Pugliano MT, Cattaneo M. Primary autoimmune neutropenia in adults: case report and review of the literature. Transfusion. 2014;54(11):2906–10. Epub 2014 May 15. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. McCrindle BW, Rowley AH, Newburger JW, Burns JC, Bolger AF, Gewitz M, Baker AL, Jackson MA, Takahashi M, Shah PB, Kobayashi T, Wu MH, Saji TT, Pahl E, American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki disease: a scientific statement for health professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017;135(17):e927–99. Epub 2017 Mar 29. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. McGhee SA, Kaska B, Liebhaber M, Stiehm ER. Persistent parvovirus-associated chronic fatigue treated with high dose intravenous immunoglobulin. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24(3):272–4. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Merkley SA, et al. Use of intravenous immunoglobulin for patients with inflammatory bowel disease with contraindications or who are unresponsive to conventional treatments. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015;21(8):1854–9. Google Scholar
  61. Mitzel-Kaoukhov H, Staubach P, Müller-Brenne T. Effect of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in therapy-resistant chronic spontaneous urticaria. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010;104(3):253–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Mo L, Bao GC. Acquired factor VIII deficiency: two case reports and a review of literature. Exp Hematol Oncol. 2017;6:8. eCollection 2017.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Moore JC, Arnold DM, Leber BF, Clare R, Molnar GJ, Kelton JG. Intravenous immunoglobulin as an adjunct to plasma exchange for the treatment of chronic thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Vox Sang. 2007;93(2):173–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Mueller-Eckhardt C, Kiefel V. High-dose IgG for post-transfusion purpura-revisited. Blut. 1988;57(4):163–7. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Newburger JW, Takahashi M, Beiser AS, Burns JC, Bastian J, Chung KJ, Colan SD, Duffy CE, Fulton DR, Glode MP, et al. A single intravenous infusion of gamma globulin as compared with four infusions in the treatment of acute Kawasaki syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1991;324(23):1633–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Nosadini M, Mohammad SS, Ramanathan S, Brilot F, Dale RC. Immune therapy in autoimmune encephalitis: a systematic review. Expert Rev Neurother. 2015;15(12):1391–419.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Perez EE, Orange JS, Bonilla F, Chinen J, Chinn IK, Dorsey M, El-Gamal Y, Harville TO, Hossny E, Mazer B, Nelson R, Secord E, Jordan SC, Stiehm ER, Vo AA, Ballow M. Update on the use of immunoglobulin in human disease: a review of evidence. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;139(3S):S1–S46. Epub 2016 Dec 29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Prete M, Dammacco R, Fatone MC, Racanelli V. Autoimmune uveitis: clinical, pathogenetic, and therapeutic features. Clin Exp Med. 2016;16(2):125–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Rasche FM, Keller F, Lepper PM, Aymanns C, Karges W, Sailer LC, Müller LV, Czock D. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin pulse therapy in patients with progressive immunoglobulin A nephropathy: a long-term follow-up. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006;146(1):47–53.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Rayment R, Brunskill SJ, Stanworth S, Soothill PW, Roberts DJ, Murphy MF. Antenatal interventions for fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;1:CD004226. Review. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(5):CD004226.Google Scholar
  71. Relkin NR, Thomas RG, Rissman RA, Brewer JB, Rafii MS, van Dyck CH, Jack CR, Sano M, Knopman DS, Raman R, Szabo P, Gelmont DM, Fritsch S, Aisen PS, Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study. A phase 3 trial of IV immunoglobulin for Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2017;88(18):1768–75. Epub 2017 Apr 5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Rübo J, Albrecht K, Lasch P, Laufkötter E, Leititis J, Marsan D, Niemeyer B, Roesler J, Roll C, Roth B, et al. High-dose intravenous immune globulin therapy for hyperbilirubinemia caused by Rh hemolytic disease. J Pediatr. 1992;121(1):93–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Sakthiswary R, D’Cruz D. Intravenous immunoglobulin in the therapeutic armamentarium of systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2014;93(16):e86. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sallam MM, Abou-Aisha K, El-Azizi M. A novel combination approach of human polyclonal IVIG and antibiotics against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Infect Drug Resist. 2016;9:301–11. eCollection 2016.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Schwartz HJ, Berger M. Intravenous gamma-globulin therapy in bronchial asthma. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2002;23(1):15–8. Review.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Skeie GO, Apostolski S, Evoli A, Gilhus NE, Illa I, Harms L, Hilton-Jones D, Melms A, Verschuuren J, Horge HW, European Federation of Neurological Societies. Guidelines for treatment of autoimmune neuromuscular transmission disorders. Eur J Neurol. 2010;17(7):893–902.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Smyth RL. Intravenous immunoglobulin for cystic fibrosis lung disease. Arch Dis Child. 2004;89(4):298–9. No abstract available.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Sorensen PS, Fazekas F, Lee M. Intravenous immunoglobulin G for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis. Eur J Neurol. 2002;9(6):557–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Stéphan JL, Koné-Paut I, Galambrun C, Mouy R, Bader-Meunier B, Prieur AM. Reactive haemophagocytic syndrome in children with inflammatory disorders. A retrospective study of 24 patients. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2001;40(11):1285–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sunderkötter C, Nast A, Worm M, Dengler R, Dörner T, Ganter H, Hohlfeld R, Melms A, Melzer N, Rösler K, Schmidt J, Sinnreich M, Walter MC, Wanschitz J, Wiendl H. Guidelines on dermatomyositis—excerpt from the interdisciplinary S2k guidelines on myositis syndromes by the German Society of Neurology. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2016;14(3):321–38. Scholar
  81. Tenti S, Cheleschi S, Guidelli GM, Galeazzi M, Fioravanti A. Intravenous immunoglobulins and antiphospholipid syndrome: how, when and why? A review of the literature. Autoimmun Rev. 2016;15(3):226–35. Epub 2015 Dec 1. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Twisk FN. The status of and future research into Myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome: the need of accurate diagnosis, objective assessment, and acknowledging biological and clinical subgroups. Front Physiol. 2014;5:109.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. van Doorn PA, Kuitwaard K, Walgaard C, van Koningsveld R, Ruts L, Jacobs BC. IVIG treatment and prognosis in Guillain-Barré syndrome. J Clin Immunol. 2010;30(Suppl 1):S74–8. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. van Koningsveld R, Schmitz PI, Meché FG, Visser LH, Meulstee J, van Doorn PA, Dutch GBS study group. Effect of methylprednisolone when added to standard treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin for Guillain-Barré syndrome: randomised trial. Lancet. 2004;363(9404):192–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Viard I, Wehrli P, Bullani R, Schneider P, Holler N, Salomon D, Hunziker T, Saurat JH, Tschopp J, French LE. Inhibition of toxic epidermal necrolysis by blockade of CD95 with human intravenous immunoglobulin. Science. 1998;282(5388):490–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Vierling JM, Flores PA. Evolving new therapies of autoimmune hepatitis. Clin Liver Dis. 2002;6(3):825–50, ix. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Voss LM, Wilson NJ, Neutze JM, Whitlock RM, Ameratunga RV, Cairns LM, Lennon DR. Intravenous immunoglobulin in acute rheumatic fever: a randomized controlled trial. Circulation. 2001;103(3):401–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Williams KA, Swedo SE, Farmer CA, Grantz H, Grant PJ, D’Souza P, Hommer R, Katsovich L, King RA, Leckman JF. Randomized, controlled trial of intravenous immunoglobulin for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016;55(10):860–867.e2. Epub 2016 Aug 3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Winkelhorst D, Murphy MF, Greinacher A, Shehata N, Bakchoul T, Massey E, Baker J, Lieberman L, Tanael S, Hume H, Arnold DM, Baidya S, Bertrand G, Bussel J, Kjaer M, Kaplan C, Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Oepkes D, Ryan G. Antenatal management in fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a systematic review. Blood. 2017;129(11):1538–47. Epub 2017 Jan 27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Winnie GB, Cowan RG, Wade NA. Intravenous immune globulin treatment of pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr. 1989;114(2):309–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Wolfe GI, Barohn RJ, Foster BM, Jackson CE, Kissel JT, Day JW, Thornton CA, Nations SP, Bryan WW, Amato AA, Freimer ML, Parry GJ, Myasthenia Gravis-IVIG Study Group. Randomized, controlled trial of intravenous immunoglobulin in myasthenia gravis. Muscle Nerve. 2002;26(4):549–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Yamamoto K, Takamatsu J, Saito H. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for acquired coagulation inhibitors: a critical review. Int J Hematol. 2007;85(4):287–93. Review.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of BaselBaselSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations