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Echocardiography in Heart Transplantation

  • Nehzat Akiash
  • Anita Sadeghpour
  • Azin Alizadehasl
Chapter

Abstract

Orthotopic Heart Transplantation (OHT) is an appropriate treatment for patients with end-stage heart failure, as the beating heart is taken from a donor and will implanted in the normal place of the recipient who has a high chance for post-transplantation recovery, improvement in quality of life, and survival. In recent decades, significant progress has been made in measures needed to control and assess transplant rejection and post-transplantation infections (Stengel et al., Heart 86(4):432–437, 2001).

The first heart transplant surgery technique, described by Shumway, Lower, and Stofer, is known as biatrial anastomosis technique (BAAT) (Bolman, Oper Tech Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 4(2):98–113, 1999; Kitamura et al., Circ J 73(7):1235–1239, 2009), which was later replaced by bicaval anastomosis technique (BCAT) (Locali et al., Arq Bras Cardiol 94(6):829–840, 2010). Other methods such as modified bicaval anastomosis technique (mBCAT) were developed by a group of Japanese heart surgeons as an appropriate heart transplant method (Bolman, Oper Tech Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 4(2):98–113, 1999). In first year after OHT, graft rejection and infections are more common cause of death, and often allograft vasculopathy and malignancy occur 5 year after cardiac transplant, whereas survival rate of patients following OHT has shown dramatic progress due to advances in surgical methods and improvements in management of patients after OHT.

Keywords

Echocardiography Heart transplantation Biatrial anastomosis technique Bicaval anastomosis technique Coronary artery disease Cardiac allograft vasculopathy Doppler tissue imaging 

Abbreviations

2D

Two-dimensional

2DE

Two-dimensional echocardiography

3D

Three-dimensional

3DE

Three-dimensional echocardiography

BAAT

Biatrial anastomosis technique

BCAT

Bicaval anastomosis technique

CAD

Coronary artery disease

CAV

Cardiac allograft vasculopathy

DTI

Doppler tissue imaging

EF

Ejection fraction

HF

Heart failure

HT

Heart transplantation

HTN

Hypertension

IVRT

Isovolumic relaxation time

IVUS

Intravascular ultrasound

LA

Left atrial

LV

Left ventricular

OHT

Orthotopic heart transplantation

PH

Pulmonary hypertension

PVR

Pulmonary vascular resistant

RA

Right atrial

RV

Right ventricular

TDI

Tissue Doppler imaging

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-α

TR

Tricuspid regurgitation

TTE

Transthoracic echocardiography

Supplementary material

Movie 34.1

Heterotopic heart transplantation, 4-chamber view of recipient and short axis view of donor heart (AVI 9486 kb)

Movie 34.2

Heterotopic heart transplantation, recipient and donor left atrial anastomosis (AVI 10483 kb)

Movie 34.3

Heterotopic heart transplantation, color Doppler study of recipient and donor left atrial anastomosis (AVI 3385 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nehzat Akiash
    • 1
  • Anita Sadeghpour
    • 2
  • Azin Alizadehasl
    • 3
  1. 1.Assistant Professor of CardiologyAtherosclerosis Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical SciencesAhvazIran
  2. 2.Professor of CardiologyEchocardiography Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  3. 3.Associate Professor of Cardiology, Echocardiologist, Echocardiography and Cardiogenetic Research CentersCardio-Oncology Department, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research CenterTehranIran

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