Advertisement

Transthoracic Echocardiography, Standard Windows and Echocardiographic Views

  • Anita Sadeghpour
  • Azin Alizadehasl
  • Maryam Forouzesh
Chapter

Abstract

Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) can provide a comprehensive assessment of the anatomy, function, and hemodynamic of the cardiovascular system. However, it is an operator-dependent technique and requires the expertise of the physician, who should be familiar with the capabilities and limitations (pitfalls and artifacts) of echocardiography. In this chapter we will review the basic principles of TTE, explaining how to perform Adult TTE besides definition and obtaining standard windows and views.

Keywords

Echocardiography Transthoracic echocardiography Ultrasonography Doppler Imaging planes Parasternal window Apical window 4 chamber view Subcostal window Suprasternal view 

Abbreviations

AA

Ascending aorta

AO

Aorta

ASE

American society of echocardiography

AV

Aortic valve

HV

Hepatic vein

IVC

Inferior vena cava

IVS

Inter-ventricular septum

LA

Left atrium

LPA

Left pulmonary artery

LV

Left ventricle

LVOT

Left ventrivular outflow tract

MV

Mitral valve

PA

Pulmonary artery

PLAX

Parasternal long-axis

PSAX

Parasternal short axis

PW

Pulse-waved

RA

Right atrium

RV

Right ventricle

RVOT

Right ventricular outflow tract

SVC

Superior vena cava

TTE

Transthoracic echocardiography

TV

Tricuspid valve

V

Vertebra

References

  1. 1.
    Henry W, Demaria A, Raymond G, King D, Kisslo J, Popp R, et al. Report of the American Society of Echocardiography Committee on Nomenclature and Standards in Two-Dimensional Echocardiography. Circulation. 1980;62:2.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gardin JM, Adams D, Douglas PD, Feigenbaum H, Forst DH, Fraser AG et al. Recommendations for a standardized report for adult transthoracic echocardiography. JASE. 2002.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Picard M, Adams D, Bierig SM, Dent JM, Douglas PD, Gillam LD et al. Recommendations for quality echocardiography laboratory operations. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2011.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Douglas PS, Garcia MJ, Haines DE. ACCF/ASE/ACCP/AHA/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCM/SCCT/SCMR 2011 Appropriate use criteria for echocardiography. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Society of Echocardiography, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for CardiovascularAngiography and Interventions, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57:1126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lai W, Geva T, Shirali G, Frommelt P, Humes R, Brook MM, et al. Guidelines and Standards for Performance of a Pediatric Echocardiogram: a Report from the Task Force of the Pediatric Council of the American Society of Echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2006;19:1413–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Oh JK, Seward JB, Tajik AJ. The Echo Manual. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lancellotti P, Zamorano JL, Habib G, Badano L. The EACVI textbook of echocardiography, Chapter 3. In: Kasprzak J, Sadeghpour A, Jurcut R, editors. Doppler echocardiography. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2017.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zipes D, Libby P, Bonow R. Braunwald’s heart disease : a textbook of cardiovascular medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, Elsevier Inc.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Armstrong WF, Hyan T. Feigenbaum’s echocardiography. 7th ed; 2010.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sadeghpour A, Kiavar M, Alizadehasl A. Comprehensive approach to adult congenital heart disease. London: Springer; 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anita Sadeghpour
    • 1
  • Azin Alizadehasl
    • 2
  • Maryam Forouzesh
    • 3
  1. 1.Echocardiography Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  2. 2.Echocardiologist, Echocardiography and Cardiogenetic Research CentersCardio-Oncology Department, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research CenterTehranIran
  3. 3.Cardiac Sonographer, Echocardiography Research CenterRajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research CenterTehranIran

Personalised recommendations