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Echocardiographic Assessment of Native Valvular Heart Disease

  • Anita Sadeghpour
  • Azin Alizadehasl
Chapter

Abstract

Echocardiography is not only the most versatile imaging technique for the cardiovascular system but also the most comprehensive and reliable hemodynamic tool. As we have gained confidence in the use of 2D and Doppler echocardiography for assessing cardiac hemodynamics, the evaluation of valvular heart disease has increasingly depended on echocardiography, so that fewer cases with valvular heart disease undergo invasive hemodynamic valuation. Thus, hemodynamic variables such as pressure gradients, stenotic and regurgitant valve orifice area, cardiac output (CO), regurgitant volume, left ventricular (LV) filling pressure, and pulmonary artery pressures are routinely and reliably measured with 2D and Doppler echocardiography (Table 17.1).

Keywords

Transesophageal echocardiography Valvular heart disease Aortic stenosis Aortic regurgitation Mitral stenosis Mitral regurgitation Tricuspid stenosis Tricuspid regurgitation 

Abbreviations

AF

Atrial fibrillation

AR

Aortic regurgitation

AS

Aortic valve stenosis

AV

Aortic valve

AVA

Aortic valve area

CAD

Coronary artery disease

CO

Cardiac output

CRT

Cardiac resynchronization therapy

CSA

Cross-sectional area

CW

Continuous-wave

ERO

Effective regurgitant orifice

HF

Heart failure

LA

Left atrium

LV

Left ventricle

LVEF

Left ventricular ejection fraction

LVESD

Left ventricular end systolic dimension

LVOT

Left ventrivular outflow tract

MR

Mitral regurgitation

MS

Mitral stenosis

MV

Mitral valve

MVA

Mitral valve area

MVR

Mitral valve replacement

NYHA

New York heart association

PASP

Pulmonary artery systolic pressure

PHT

Pressure half-time

PISA

Proximal isovelocity surface area

RF

Regurgitant fraction

Rvol

Regurgitant volume

TEE

Transesophageal echocardiography

TR

Tricuspid regurgitation

TS

Tricuspid stenosis

TTE

Transthoracic echocardiography

TVI

Time velocity integral

V

Velocity

VC

Vena contracta

VTI

Velocity time integral

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anita Sadeghpour
    • 1
  • Azin Alizadehasl
    • 2
  1. 1.Echocardiography Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  2. 2.Echocardiologist, Echocardiography and Cardiogenetic Research CentersCardio-Oncology Department, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research CenterTehranIran

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