Basic Principles of Echocardiography

  • Anita Sadeghpour
  • Azin Alizadehasl


Echocardiography which is the most commonly used noninvasive cardiac imaging modality is called ultrasonography of the heart. It provides real-time images from the heart and gives comprehensive information regarding the cardiac structure, function and the hemodynamic at a relatively inexpensive cost. Echocardiography uses harmless ultrasound waves (1–10 MHz) to visualize the heart.

This book is a practical echocardiography book; nonetheless, sonographers and clinicians should be familiar with the basic physics of ultrasound to obtain better images and avoid artifacts. In this chapter we tried to point out some useful data regarding ultrasound Physics, transducer Types, Echocardiography Modes, Tissue Harmonic Imaging, Principles of Doppler Echocardiography and Doppler-Based Hemodynamic Assessment.


Echocardiography Ultrasonography Transducer Doppler Tissue harmonic imaging Artifact 



Color flow imaging


Cross-sectional area


Continuous wave




High pulse repetition frequency


Left ventricular


Left ventricular outflow tract


Pulse repetition frequency


Pulsed wave


Stroke volume


Transesophageal echocardiography


Transthoracic echocardiography


Velocity propagation


Velocity time integral


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anita Sadeghpour
    • 1
  • Azin Alizadehasl
    • 2
  1. 1.Echocardiography Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  2. 2.Echocardiologist, Echocardiography and Cardiogenetic Research CentersCardio-Oncology Department, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research CenterTehranIran

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