Safety Aspects of Non-Thermal Plasmas

  • Kristian WendeEmail author
  • Anke Schmidt
  • Sander Bekeschus


Non-thermal plasmas are a valuable component of the biomedical research and application toolbox. In the past years, a plethora of fundamental and applied knowledge on plasmas was gathered. An important prerequisite for their clinical applicability is safety. The chapter comprises the current knowledge on potential threats arising from the use of plasma. All major potential concerns (UV emission, electric fields, ROS/RNS, source material) will be introduced and discussed briefly. Numerous citations will allow to extract further knowledge on specific details. As the number of plasma sources is very large, the text focuses on sources approved as medical devices in Germany (e.g. kINPen, SteriPlas) and well documented sources (e.g. COST jet). A special emphasis is given to the potential impact of plasmas on the genetic code. It can be concluded that efforts aiming at the harmonization of test methods (DIN SPEC, OECD guidelines, ISO norms) were valuable, and test according to these have been performed for a clinically relevant plasma sources. In summary, current data suggest that the tested plasma sources are safe, both regarding the physico-chemical and the biological point of view. However, the test results cannot be generalized, generating the need to test each source appropriately.


Cold plasma Non-thermal plasma Plasma medicine Risk assessment Safety aspects 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristian Wende
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anke Schmidt
    • 2
  • Sander Bekeschus
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Innovation Competence (ZIK), Plasmatis—Plasma Plus Cell at Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald)GreifswaldGermany
  2. 2.Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald)GreifswaldGermany

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