Ventricular Septal Defect
Ventricular septal defects are among the most common congenital heart entities in early childhood with an incidence of about 1 per 250–300 live births. Two-thirds close spontaneously by early school age or are repaired in childhood; therefore, the prevalence is much lower in adults. This chapter discusses the various subtypes of ventricular septal defects, the physiology and presentations associated with different sized shunts, and the indications for shunt closure in adults.
- 7.Warnes CA, Williams RG, Bashore TM, et al. ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines for the management of adults with congenital heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines (writing committee to develop guidelines on the management of adults with congenital heart disease). Circulation. 2008;118:e714–833.PubMedGoogle Scholar