Atrial Septal Defects and Sinus Venosus Defects
Atrial septal defects are quite common with an incidence of about 1 per 400–800 live births, accounting for around 13% of all congenital heart disease. As a whole, these lesions occur in nearly equal proportion in males and females though differences are seen among subtypes. This chapter discusses the various types of atrial septal defects, the physiology and presentations associated with different sized shunts, the essentials of diagnosis, and the indications for shunt closure in adults.
- 10.Warnes CA, Williams RG, Bashore TM, et al. ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines for the management of adults with congenital heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice guidelines (writing committee to develop guidelines on the management of adults with congenital heart disease). Developed in collaboration with the American Society of Echocardiography, Heart Rhythm Society, International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:e143–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar