Evaluated by a Machine. Effects of Negative Feedback by a Computer or Human Boss

  • Nicole C. KrämerEmail author
  • Lilly-Marie Leiße
  • Andrea Hollingshead
  • Jonathan Gratch
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10498)


In today’s remote working environments that include tasks given and performed via the Internet, people will encounter computer bosses that supervise their work. There is no knowledge on whether people will accept (negative) feedback that is given by an autonomous agent instead of a human. In a 2x2 between subject online experiment 183 participants performed a proofreading task and received either emotional or factual feedback by a human or computer boss. Results indicate that while the bosses´ behavior affects perceived warmness, human likeness and perceived psychological safety in the sense that factual feedback is perceived as more positive, there was only one significant result for the manipulation of the boss with regard to the perception of human-likeness.


Feedback Media equation CASA Work Computer boss 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicole C. Krämer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lilly-Marie Leiße
    • 1
  • Andrea Hollingshead
    • 2
  • Jonathan Gratch
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Duisburg-EssenDuisburgGermany
  2. 2.University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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