Do We Need Emotionally Intelligent Artificial Agents? First Results of Human Perceptions of Emotional Intelligence in Humans Compared to Robots
Humans are very apt at reading emotional signals in other humans and even artificial agents, which raises the question of whether artificial agents need to be emotionally intelligent to ensure effective social interactions. For artificial agents without emotional intelligence might generate behavior that is misinterpreted, unexpected, and confusing to humans, violating human expectations and possibly causing emotional harm. Surprisingly, there is a dearth of investigations aimed at understanding the extent to which artificial agents need emotional intelligence for successful interactions. Here, we present the first study in the perception of emotional intelligence (EI) in robots vs. humans. The objective was to determine whether people viewed robots as more or less emotionally intelligent when exhibiting similar behaviors as humans, and to investigate which verbal and nonverbal communication methods were most crucial for human observational judgments. Study participants were shown a scene in which either a robot or a human behaved with either high or low empathy, and then they were asked to evaluate the agent’s emotional intelligence and trustworthiness. The results showed that participants could consistently distinguish the high EI condition from the low EI condition regardless of the variations in which communication methods were observed, and that whether the agent was a robot or human had no effect on the perception. We also found that relative to low EI high EI conditions led to greater trust in the agent, which implies that we must design robots to be emotionally intelligent if we wish for users to trust them.
KeywordsHuman-robot interaction Emotional intelligence Empathetic robot
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Ashkanasy, N., Daus, C.: Emotion in the workplace: The new challenge for managers. The Academy of Management Executive 16(1), 76–86 (2002)Google Scholar
- 2.Baylor, A., Kim, Y.: Simulating instructional roles through pedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 15(2), 95–115 (2005)Google Scholar
- 5.Caruso, D.: Emotional intelligence scale (in preparation)Google Scholar
- 7.Fariselli, L., Freedman, J., Ghini, M.M., Valentini, F.: Stress, emotional intelligence, and performance in healthcare (retrieved 07/19/2017)Google Scholar
- 11.Kanda, T., Shiomi, M., Miyashita, Z., Ishiguro, H., Hagita, N.: An affective guide robot in a shopping mall. In: 4th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), pp. 173–180, March 2009Google Scholar
- 13.Lohani, M., Stokes, C., Dashan, N., McCoy, M., Rivers, S.E., Bailey, C.A.: A framework for human-agent social systems: the role of non-technical factors in operation success. In: Proceedings of Advances in Human Factors in Robots and Unmanned Systems, pp. 137–148 (2017)Google Scholar
- 14.Lohani, M., Stokes, C., McCoy, M., Bailey, C., Joshi, A., Rivers, S.: Perceived role of physiological sensors impacts trust and reliance on robots. In: Proceedings of 25th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, pp. 513–518 (2016)Google Scholar
- 15.Lohani, M., Stokes, C., McCoy, M., Bailey, C., Rivers, S.: Social interaction moderates human-robot trust-reliance relationship and improves stress coping. In: Proceedings of 11th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, pp. 471–472 (2016)Google Scholar
- 16.Lohani, M., Stokes, C., Oden, K., Frazier, S., Landers, K., Craven, P., Lawton, D., McCoy, M., Macannuco, D.: A framework for human-machine social systems: The influence of non-technical factors on trust and stress appraisal. ACM Transactions in Interactive Intelligence Systems (forthcoming)Google Scholar
- 17.Lopes, P., Grewal, D., Kadis, J., Gall, M., Salovey, P.: Evidence that emotional intelligence is related to job performance and affect and attitudes at work. Psicothema 18, 132–138 (2006)Google Scholar
- 21.Picard, R.: Toward machines with emotional intelligence. In: ICINCO (Invited Speakers), pp. 29–30 (2004)Google Scholar
- 25.Schaefer, K., Billings, D., Szalma, J., Adams, J., Sanders, T., Chen, J., Hancock, P.: A meta-analysis of factors influencing the development of trust in automation: Implications for human-robot interaction. DTIC Document, Tech. Rep (2014)Google Scholar