Ultrasonography of the Parathyroid Glands
Primary hyperparathyroidism is a very common disorder with risk for end-organ damages, such as renal dysfunction and bone loss, which can be avoided effectively by performing surgery in suitable patients. Medical treatment is less effective and may be the only remedy for patients with mild disease or those who are unable to undergo surgery for comorbidities. Accurate localization enables the surgeon to perform directed and minimally invasive surgeries in the outpatient setting with shorter recuperative times. In this chapter, localization techniques are reviewed. Ultrasound evaluation has unique advantages over radiological imaging that include no radiation exposure to patients and the ability for detained thyroid evaluation to be performed. The ultrasound appearance of enlarged parathyroid glands and adenomas is discussed.
KeywordsParathyroid adenoma Coincidental thyroid nodules and cancer Parathyroid FNA Syringe washout Alcohol injection Alcohol ablation Atypical parathyroid adenoma Cystic parathyroid adenoma
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