Advertisement

History of Thyroid Ultrasound

  • Robert A. LevineEmail author
  • J. Woody Sistrunk
Chapter

Abstract

The thyroid is amenable to ultrasound study because of its superficial location, vascularity, size, and echogenicity. In addition, the thyroid has a very high incidence of nodular disease, the vast majority benign. Most structural abnormalities of the thyroid need evaluation and monitoring but may not require intervention. Between 1965 and 1970, there were seven articles published specific to thyroid ultrasound. In the last 5 years, there have been over 10,000 articles published. Thyroid ultrasound has undergone a dramatic transformation from the cryptic deflections on an oscilloscope produced in A-mode scanning, to barely recognizable B-mode images, followed by initial low-resolution gray scale, to current high-resolution images. Recent advances in technology, including harmonic imaging, spatial compound imaging, elastography, and three-dimensional reconstruction, have all furthered the field.

Keywords

History A-mode B-mode Sonar Therapeutic ultrasound Diagnostic ultrasound Water bath Transducer Thyroid malignancy Fine-needle aspiration biopsy Doppler ultrasound 

Abbreviations

AACE

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

AIUM

American Institute of Ultrasound Medicine

ATA

American Thyroid Association

ECNU

Endocrine Certification in Neck Ultrasound

MHz

Megahertz

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors wish to acknowledge the work of Dr. Joseph Woo and his excellent web-based overview of the history of ultrasound. Relevant parts of his work with application to thyroid ultrasound have been presented here. For his full text, please access http://www.ob-ultrasound.net/ history1.html.

References

  1. 1.
    Solbiati L, Osti V, Cova L, Tonolini M. Ultrasound of the thyroid, parathyroid glands and neck lymph nodes. Eur Radiol. 2001;11(12):2411–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tessler FN, Tublin ME. Thyroid sonography: current applications and future directions. AJR. 1999;173:437–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Woo JSK. A short history of the development of ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology. http://www.ob-ultrasound.net/history1.html. Accessed 29 June 2016.
  4. 4.
    Levine RA. Something old and something new: a brief history of thyroid ultrasound technology. Endocr Pract. 2004;10(3):227–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Donald I, Macvicar J, Brown TG. Investigation of abdominal masses by pulsed ultrasound. Lancet. 1958;271:1188–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fujimoto F, Oka A, Omoto R, Hirsoe M. Ultrasound scanning of the thyroid gland as a new diagnostic approach. Ultrasonics. 1967;5:177–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Blum M, Weiss B, Hernberg J. Evaluation of thyroid nodules by A-mode echography. Radiology. 1971;101:651–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Scheible W, Leopold GR, Woo VL, Gosink BB. High resolution real-time ultrasonography of thyroid nodules. Radiology. 1979;133:413–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Crocker EF, McLaughlin AF, Kossoff G, Jellins J. The gray scale echographic appearance of thyroid malignancy. J Clin Ultrasound. 1974;2(4):305–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hassani SN, Bard RL. Evaluation of solid thyroid neoplasms by gray scale and real time ultrasonography: the “halo” sign. Ultrasound Med. 1977;4:323.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Propper RA, Skolnick ML, Weinstein BJ, Dekker A. The nonspecificity of the thyroid halo sign. J Clin Ultrasound. 1980;8:129–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Walfish PG, Hazani E, Strawbridge HTG, et al. Combined ultrasound and needle aspiration cytology in the assessment and management of hypofunctioning thyroid nodule. Ann Intern Med. 1977;87(3):270–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gharib H. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules: advantages, limitations, and effect. Mayo Clin Proc. 1994;69:44–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Danese D, Sciacchitano S, Farsetti A, Andreoli M, Pontecorvi A. Diagnostic accuracy of conventional versus sonography guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the management of nonpalpable and palpable thyroid nodules. Thyroid. 1998;8:511–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Haugen BR, Alexander EK, Bible KC, Doherty G, et al. 2015 American Thyroid Association management guidelines for adult patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2016;26(1):1–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ralls PW, Mayekowa DS, Lee KP, et al. Color-flow Doppler sonography in Graves’ disease: “thyroid inferno.”. AJR. 1988;150:781–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bogazzi F, Bartelena L, Brogioni S, et al. Color flow Doppler sonography rapidly differentiates type I and type II amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid. 1997;7(4):541–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grant EG. Sonographic contrast agents in vascular imaging. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2001;22(1):25–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Andrioli M, Valcavi R. Ultrasound B-flow imaging in the evaluation of thermal ablation of thyroid nodules. Endocrine. 2015;48(3):1013–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lees W. Ultrasound imaging in three and four dimensions. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2001;22(1):85–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cooper DS, Doherty GM, Haugen BR, Kloos RT, et al. Management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2006;16(2):109–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cooper DS, Doherty GM, Haugen BR, Kloos RT, et al. Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2009;19(11):1167–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Antonelli A, Miccoli P, Ferdeghini M. Role of neck ultrasonography in the follow-up of patients operated on for thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 1995;5(1):25–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College, Thyroid Center of New Hampshire, St. Joseph HospitalNashuaUSA
  2. 2.Jackson Thyroid & Endocrine Clinic, PLLCJacksonUSA

Personalised recommendations