National Systems of Units and Currencies: A–C

  • Jan Gyllenbok
Part of the Science Networks. Historical Studies book series (SNHS, volume 57)


This chapter compiles the measurement systems of sovereign states of the modern world; some are unrecognised states, others are consistent areas and there are also many nations that no longer exist as independent countries. Conversions to precise metric units are offered as a rough guide for estimation rather than a definitive accounting, which would warrant sophisticated supporting statistical analysis.


  1. [TURN]
    Turner, Ralph Lilley. A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of the Nepali Language. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1931.Google Scholar
  2. [CUHA]
    Cuhaj, George S., ed., and Thomas Michael. 2011 Standard Catalog of World Coins 1901–2000. 38th ed. Iola: Krause Publishing, 2011.Google Scholar
  3. [BAUE]
    Bauer, Richardt William. Haandbog i Mønt-, Maal og Vægtforhold udarbejdet efter de nyeste og bedste Kilder. 2nd ed. København: P.G. Philipsens forlag, 1882.Google Scholar
  4. [DOUR]
    Doursther, Horace. Dictionnaire universel des poids et mesures anciens et modernes, contenat des tables des monnaies de tous les pays. Brussels: M. Hayez, Imprimeur de l’Académie Royale, 1840. (Reprinted in facsimile by Meridian Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1965).Google Scholar
  5. [ECON]
    The Economist Guide to Weight & Measures. (compiled by the Statistical Department of ‘The Economist’). London, 1954.Google Scholar
  6. [GRUN]
    Grund, Francis Joseph. The merchant’s assistant, or, Merchantile instructer: containing a full account of the moneys, coins, weights and measures of the principal trading nations and their colonies, together with their values in United States currency, weights and measures. 7th ed. Boston: Hilliard, Gray & Co., 1834.Google Scholar
  7. [GUIL]
    Guillame, Charles-Édouard and Charles Volet. “National and local systems of weights and measures.” In National Research Council of the United States of America. International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics, Chemistry and Technology. Volume 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1926.Google Scholar
  8. [KELL4]
    Kelly, Patrick. Oriental metrology: comprising the monies, weights, and measures of the East Indies, and other trading places in Asia, reduced to the English standard by verified operations. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, 1832.Google Scholar
  9. [KLIM]
    Klimpert, Richard. Lexikon der Münzen, Masse, Gewichte, Zählarten und Zeitgrössen aller Länder der Erde. 2nd ed. Berlin: Verlag von C. Regenhardt, 1896.Google Scholar
  10. [KRAE]
    Kraemer, Adolf. Elementar-Geometrie im Anwendung auf die Gewerbe der Bodenkultur: (Landwirtschaft, Gartenbau und Forstwesen) Anleitung zur Ausführung von Flächen-, Körper-, und Höhenmessungen. P. Pary, 1905.Google Scholar
  11. [KRÜG]
    Krüger, Johann Friedrich. Vollständiges Handbuch der Münzen, Maße und Gewicht aller Länder der Erde für Kaufleute, Banquiers, Geldwechsler, Muenzsammler, Handlungsschulen, Staatsbeamte, Kuenstler, Reisende, Zeitungsleser, und Alle, welche sich mit Voelker- und Laenderkenntniß beschaeftigen; in alphabetischer Ordnung. Quedlinburg/Leipzig: Verlag Gottfried Brasse, 1830.Google Scholar
  12. [MART3]
    Martini, Angelo. Manuale di Metrologia, ossia misure pesi e monete in uso attualmente e anticamente. Torino: E. Loescher, 1883.Google Scholar
  13. [ROCH]
    de Rochesnard, Jean Forien. Album des Poids d’Afrique. 2nd ed. Colombes, 1978.Google Scholar
  14. [ROSS]
    Ross, Lester A. Archaeological Metrology: English, Frech, American and Canadian Systems of Weights and Measures for North American Historical Archaeology. Ottawa: National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, 1983. In Series: History and archaeology, 0225-0101; 68.Google Scholar
  15. [ROTT]
    Rottländer, Rolf C. A. Antike Längenmasse: Untersuchungen über ihre Zusammenhänge. Braunschweig: Vierweg, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [TECH]
    Technical Conversion Factors for Agricultural Commodities. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1972.Google Scholar
  17. [UN55]
    United Nations. Statistical Office of the United Nations in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United. World Weights and Measures. Handbook for Statisticians. New York, 1955. Provisional edition. Series: Statistical papers – United Nations. M, no. 21. (ST/STAT/SER.M/21 May 1955).Google Scholar
  18. [UN66]
    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Statistical Office of the United Nations. World Weights and Measures. Handbook for Statisticians. Statistical Papers. New York. 1966. Series: M, no. 21 Revision 1. (ST/STAT/SER.M/21/rev.1).Google Scholar
  19. [WAGN2]
    Wagner, Gustav and Friedrich Anton Strackerjan. Compendium der Münz-, Maass-, Gewichts- und Wechselcours-Verhältnisse sämmtlicher Staaten und Handelsstädte der Erde. Leipzig: Verlag B. G. Teubner, 1855.Google Scholar
  20. [WASH]
    Washburn, Edward W. International critical tables of numerical data, physics, chemistry and technology, Vol. 1–7. National Academies, 1930.Google Scholar
  21. [BERL]
    Berlin, Howard M. World Monetary Units – An Historical Dictionary, Country by Country. London: McFarland & Co. Inc., 2008.Google Scholar
  22. [BRUC]
    Bruce, Colin R.,senior ed., George S. Cuhaj, ed. and Thomas Michael. Standard Catalog of World Coins 1701–1800. 4th ed. Iola: Krause Publishing, 2007.Google Scholar
  23. [CUHA2]
    Cuhaj, George S., ed., and Thomas Michael. Standard Catalog of World Coins 1801–1900. 6th ed. Iola: Krause Publishing, 2009.Google Scholar
  24. [DUNK]
    Dunkling, Leslie and Adrian Room. The Guinness Book of Money. London: Guinness Publishing, 1990.Google Scholar
  25. [KAHN]
    Kahn, Helmut and Bernd Knorr. Alte Masse, Münzen und Gewichte: ein Lexikon von Helmut Kahnt und Bernd Knorr. Mannheim: Bibliographisches Institut, 1987.Google Scholar
  26. [ROOM]
    Room, Adrian. Dictionary of coin names. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1987.Google Scholar
  27. [SNOD]
    Snodgrass, Mary Ellen. Coins and currency: an historical encyclopedia. London: McFarland & Co., 2003.Google Scholar
  28. [YALC]
    Yalcinkaya, Orner. 2004: The Meaning of World Currencies. IBNS [International Bank Note Society] Journal 42, 4, 25–26.Google Scholar
  29. [TOYN]
    Toynbee, Arnold J. A Study of History. Abridgement by D.C. Somervell. London: Oxford University Press, 1960.Google Scholar
  30. [KREE]
    Kreemer, J. Atjèhsch handwoordenboek (Atjèhsch-Nederlandsch). Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1931.Google Scholar
  31. [MARS]
    Marsden, William. The history of Sumatra: containing an account of the government, laws, customs and manners of the native inhabitants, with a description of the natural productions, and a relation of the ancient political state of that island. 2nd ed. London: Printed for the author, 1784.Google Scholar
  32. [SNOU]
    Snouck Hurgronje, Christiaan. De Atjèhers, Vol. 1. Batavia: Landsdrukkerij, 1895.Google Scholar
  33. [SRC]
    Sumatra Research Council and University of Hull Centre for South-East Asian Studies. Berita kadjian Sumatera: Sumatra research bulletin, Volume 1–4. Dewan Penjelidikan Sumatera, 1971.Google Scholar
  34. [GBCO2]
    Great Britain. Colonial Office. An economic survey of the colonial territories. 7 volumes. London: H.M.S.O., 1952–1955.Google Scholar
  35. [HUNT7]
    Hunter, William Wilson. Imperial gazetteer of India, Volume 5. Eds. James Sutherland Cotton, Sir Richard Burn and Sir William Stevenson Meyer. Clarendon Press, 1908.Google Scholar
  36. [UN54]
    United Nations, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East. Glossary of commodity terms including currencies, weights and measures used in certain countries of Asia and the Far East. New York: United Nations. Department of Economic Affairs, 1954.Google Scholar
  37. [SIMM]
    Simmonds, P[eter]. L[und]. The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms, Moneys, Weights, and Measures of all Countries. New rev. ed. London: George Routledge and Sons, 1892.Google Scholar
  38. [RAVE]
    Raverty, Henry George. A dictionary of the Puk’hto, Pus’hto, or language of the Afghans: with remarks on the originality of the language, and its affinity to other oriental tongues. 2nd ed., London: Williams and Norgate, 1867.Google Scholar
  39. [FARE]
    The Far East and Australasia 2003. Routledge, 2002.Google Scholar
  40. [DEMA2]
    de Marées, Pieter. Description et Récit Historial du Riche Royaume d’Or de Guinée, aultrement nommé, la coste de l’or de Mina, gisante en certain endroict d’Afrique. Amsterdam: Printed for Cornelis Claeszoon, 1605.Google Scholar
  41. [GARR]
    Garrard, Timothy F. Akan Weights and the Gold Trade. London: Longmans Group, 1980.Google Scholar
  42. [GLUC]
    Gluck, Julius. Die Goldgewichte von Oberguinea unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der wirtschaftlichen Voraussetzungen und Verhältnisse. Heidelberg: Carl Winter’s Universitat’s Buchhandlung, 1937.Google Scholar
  43. [JUST]
    Justesen, Ole. Translated by James Manley. Danish sources for the history of Ghana 1657–1754. Vol. 1, 1657–1735. Copenhagen: Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 2005. Series: Historisk-filosofiske skrifter/Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 0023-3307; 30:1 and Fontes historiae Africanae. Series Varia.Google Scholar
  44. [NIAN]
    Niangoran-Bouah, Georges. L’Univers Akan des Poids à Peser l’Or. 3 Volumes. Abidian: Les Nouvelles éditions africaines-M.L.B., 1984, 1985, and 1987.Google Scholar
  45. [SALE4]
    Sale, George, George Psalmanazar, Archibald Bower, John Campbell, George Shelvocke and John Swinton. An universal history: from the earliest accounts to the present time. Vol. 39. London: Printed for T. Osborne, A. Miller and J. Osborn, 1760.Google Scholar
  46. [SAVA2]
    Savary, Claude. 1969: Poids à Peser l’Or du Musée d’Ethnographie de Genève. Bulletin Annual du Musée dEthnographie de Genève 11, 47–122.Google Scholar
  47. [ZELL]
    Zeller, Rudolf. Die Goldgewichte von Asante (Westafrica): eine ethnologische studie. Leipzig: Teubner, 1912.Google Scholar
  48. [RUGG]
    Ruggles, Samuel Bulkley. Reports of Samuel B. Ruggles: Delegate to the International Statistical Congress at Berlin, on the Resources of the U.S. and on a Uniform System of Weights, Measures and Coins. St. Press, 1864.Google Scholar
  49. [BELD2]
    Beldiceanu, Nicoară. Le timar dans l’État ottoman: (début XIVe-début XVIe siècle). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1980.Google Scholar
  50. [INAL]
    İnalcik, Halil. An economic and social history of the Ottoman Empire, Volym 1. Cambridge University Press, 1997.Google Scholar
  51. [SALE2]
    Sale, George, George Psalmanazar, Archibald Bower, John Campbell, George Shelvocke and John Swinton. An universal history: from the earliest accounts to the present time. Vol. 10. London: Printed for T. Osborne, 1747.Google Scholar
  52. [DECO2]
    Decourdemanche, Jean-Adolphe. Traite des Monnaies, Mesures et Poids Anciens et Modernes de l’Inde et de la Chine. Paris: Institut Ethnographique International de Paris, 1913.Google Scholar
  53. [DUBO]
    Dubost, Christopher. The elements of commerce; or, A treatise on different calculations. London: T. Boosey, 1805.Google Scholar
  54. [JOUF]
    Jouffroy, Achille. Dictionnaire des inventions et découvertes anciennes et modernes: dans les sciences, les arts et l’industrie … d’après les travaux publiés par des sociétés savantes … Paris: J.P. Migne, 1860. Series: Encyclopédie théologique, 35–36.Google Scholar
  55. [KELL]
    Kelly, Patrick. The Universal Cambist and Commercial Instructor: Being a full and accurate treatise on the exchanges, coins, weights, and measures, of all trading nations and their colonies. 2nd ed., with supplements. London, 1835.Google Scholar
  56. [NOBA]
    Noback, Friedrich. Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtsbuch: das Geld-, Maass- und Gewichtswesen, die Wechsel- und Geldkurse, des Wechselrecht und die Usanzen; mit 1 tab. Anh.; Uebersicht der Gold- und Silbermünzen nach Ausmünzungsverhältnissen und Werth. Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1879.Google Scholar
  57. [MAN]
    Man, Edward Horace. On the aboriginal inhabitants of the Andaman islands: With report of researches into the language of the South Andaman islands, by A.J. Ellis. London: Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1885.Google Scholar
  58. [MATH2]
    Mathur, Kaushal Kumar. Nicobar Islands. National Book Trust, 1967. Series: India, the land and the people.Google Scholar
  59. [CARD]
    Cardarelli, François. Encyclopaedia of scientific units, weights, and measures: their SI equivalences and origins. [English translation by M. J. Shields]. New York: Springer, 2003.Google Scholar
  60. [TABE]
    Taberd, Jean Louis. Dictionarium Latino-Anamiticum. Fredericnagori vulgo Serampore, ex typis J.C. Marshman, 1838.Google Scholar
  61. [ALSI]
    Alsina i Català, Claudi, Gaspar Feliu i Montfort and Lluis Marquet i Ferigle. Diccionari de Mesures Catalanes. Barcelona: Curial Ediciones Catalanes, 1996.Google Scholar
  62. [ALTE]
    Altés, François. Traité comparatif des monnaies, poids, et mesures, changes, banques et fonds publics, entre la France, l’Espagne, et l’Angleterre. Avec des pièces justificatives, etc. Marseille: J. Barile & Boulouch, 1832.Google Scholar
  63. [ARAV]
    Aravaca y Torrent, Antonio. Balanza métrica, ó sea Igualdad de las pesas y medidas legales de Castilla, las de las cuarenta y nueve provincias de España, sus posesiones de Ultramar, isla de Cuba, Puerto-Rico y Filipinas, y las de Francia, Inglaterra y Portugal: todas con el sistema métrico y viceversa … Valencia: Impremia de José Domenech, 1867.Google Scholar
  64. [BURR2]
    Burriel, Andrés Marcos. Informe de Toledo al Consejo de Castilla sobre Igualación de Pesos y Medidas. Madrid, 1758.Google Scholar
  65. [CLAU]
    Claudi Alsona i Català, Gaspar Feliu i Montfort, and Lluis Marquet i Ferigle. Diccionari de Mesures Catalanes. Barcelona: Curial Ediciones Catalanes, 1996.Google Scholar
  66. [COLE]
    Colegio Oficial de Ingenieros Téchnicos Agrícolas y Peritos Agrícolas de Alicante. Medidas superficiales antiguas, usadas en la provincia de Alicante y su equivalencia en unidades métricas.(at (Access: Nov. 2009)).
  67. [DIRE]
    Dirección General del Instituto Geográfico y Estadístico. Equivalencias entre las Pesas y Medidas Usadas Antiguamente en las Diversas Provincias de España y las Legales del Sistema Métrico-Decimal. Publicadas de Real Orden. Madrid: Imprenta de la Dirección General del Instituto Geográfica y Estadístico, 1886.Google Scholar
  68. [FLÜG]
    Flügel, George Thomas and Francis Joseph Grund. The merchant’s assistant, or, Merchantile instructer: containing a full account of the moneys, coins, weights and measures of the principal trading nations and their colonies, together with their values in United States currency, weights and measures. Boston: Hilliard and Gray, 1834.Google Scholar
  69. [HAMI]
    Hamilton, Earl Jefferson. American treasure and the price revolution in Spain, 1501–1650. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1934. Harvard Economic Studies, volume 43.Google Scholar
  70. [LLYD]
    LL y de P., D. J. Manual de cuentas hechas y reduccion de monedas, pesos y medidasde Inglaterra, Francia y Porugal á monedas, pesos y medidas de Cataluna y Castilla, con las instructions mas necesarias para la pronta resolucion de todo cambio, y otras noticias interesantes y curiosas para los que se dedican d toda especie de comercio. Barcelona: José Torner, 1846.Google Scholar
  71. [TORR2]
    Torres Muñoz y Luna, Ramón. La Química en sus principales aplicaciones a la agricultura. Madrid: Imprenta de D. Felix de Bona, 1856.Google Scholar
  72. [CHIA]
    Chiarini, Georgio di Lorenzo. Questo e el libro che tracta di mercatantie et usanze de paesi. Florence: Francesco di Dino di Jacopo, 1481.Google Scholar
  73. [ALVA]
    Alvarez, Juan. Temas de historia económica argentina. Buenos Aires: El Ateneo, 1929.Google Scholar
  74. [BALB]
    Balbin, Valentín (Departamento de ingenieros civiles). Sistema de medidas y pesas de la República Argentina. Buenos Aires: Tipografia de M. Biedma, 1881.Google Scholar
  75. [BARB2]
    Barba, Fernando E. Aproximación al estudio de los precios y salarios en Buenos Aires desde fines del siglo XVIII hasta 1860. La Plata: Universidad Necional de la Plata, 1999.Google Scholar
  76. [BROW]
    Browne, William Alfred. The merchants’ handbook of the money, weights, and measures of all nations, with their British equivalents. 2nd ed. London: Edward Stanford, 1872.Google Scholar
  77. [BROW5]
    Brown, Jonathan C. A socioeconomic history of Argentina, 1776–1860. Cambridge, 1979.Google Scholar
  78. [NUEV]
    Nueva Revista de Buenos Aires. Volume 2. Buenos Aires: C. Casavalle, 1881.Google Scholar
  79. [SENI]
    Senillosa, D. Felipe. Memoria sobre los pesos y medidas. Buenos Aires: Imprenta de Hallet y Ca., 1835.Google Scholar
  80. [CLAR]
    Clarke, Frank Wigglesworth. Weights, Measures, and Money of All Nations. New York: D. Appelton & Co, 1875.Google Scholar
  81. [ZIMM]
    Zimmerman, O.T., and Irvin Lavine. Industrial Research Service’s Conversion Factors and Tables. 3rd ed. New Hampshire: Industrial Research Service, 1961.Google Scholar
  82. [ALBA]
    Albarède, Francis. Geochemistry: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, 2003.Google Scholar
  83. [ANTI]
    Anti, A. A. The ancient Asante king. Accra: Volta Bridge Pub. Co., 1974.Google Scholar
  84. [BOWD]
    Bowdich, Thomas Edward. Mission From Cape Coast Castle To Ashantee, With A Statistical Account Of That Kingdom, And Geographical Notices Of Other Parts Of The interior Of Africa. London: John Murray, 1819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. [BRAC2]
    Brackenbury, Henry. The Ashanti War: a narrative. Edinburgh: William Blackwood and Sons, 1874.Google Scholar
  86. [CHRI]
    Christaller, J. G. A dictionary of the Asante and Fante language called Tshi (Chwee, Tw̌i): with a grammatical introduction and appendices on the geography of the Gold Coast and other subjects. Basel: Printed for the Evangelical Missionary Society, 1881.Google Scholar
  87. [FORI]
    Forien de Rochesnard, Jean, and Jacques Lugand. Catalogue général des poids. Anvers: Alliance numismatique européenne, 1955.Google Scholar
  88. [LEWI5]
    Lewin, Thomas J. Asante before the British: the Prempean years, 1875–1900. Lawrence: Regents Press of Kansas, 1978.Google Scholar
  89. [MARE]
    De Marees, Pieter. Description et récit historihistorique du riche royaume dór de Guinée, aultrement nommé, la coste de l’or de Mina, gisante en certain endroict d’Afrique … Amsterdam: Cornille Claesson, 1605.Google Scholar
  90. [MARK]
    Markham, Clements Robert. Ocean highways: the geographical record. Vol. 1. London: Philip & Son, 1874.Google Scholar
  91. [MENZ]
    Menzel, Birgitte. Goldgewichte aus Ghana. Berlin: Museum für Völkerkunde Berlin, 1968. Series: Veröffentlichungen dss Museums für Völker kunde Berlin, Neue Folge 12, Abteilung Afrika, 3.Google Scholar
  92. [MUEN]
    Muensterberger, Werner. Sculpture of primitive man: 136 photogravure plates and 2 plates in color by Hans Sibbelee and R. Spreng. New York: H. N. Abrams, 1955.Google Scholar
  93. [MÜLL]
    Müller von Harrburgh, Wilhelm Johann. Die Afrikanische Auf der Guineischen Gold-Cust gelegene Landschafft Fetu, warhafftig und fleissig auss eigener acht-jähriger Erfahrung genauer Besichtigung und unablässiger Erforschung beschrieben…Hamburg: Zacharias Härtel, 1673.Google Scholar
  94. [NIAN2]
    Niangoran-Bouah, Georges. Introduction á la drummologie. Abidjan: Université Nationale de Cöte d’Ivoire, Institut d’Ethno-sociologie, 1981.Google Scholar
  95. [RATT]
    Rattray, R. S. Religion and Art in Ashanti. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1927.Google Scholar
  96. [REGI]
    The Regional surveys of the world. The Far East and Australasia 1982–83. 14th ed. Europa Publications, 1982.Google Scholar
  97. [CHEL]
    Chelius, Georg Kaspar. Mass- und Gewichtsbuch …, von dem Verfasser selbst ganz umgearbeitete und sehr vermehrte Auflage … Herausgegeben und mit Nachträgen begleitet von Johann Friedrich Hauschild, etc. Frankfurt, 1830.Google Scholar
  98. [HIMK]
    Himka, John-Paul. Galicia and Bukovina: A Resource Handbook about Western Ukraine, Late 19th–20th centuries. Edmonton: Alberta Culture & Multiculturalism, Historical Resources Division, 1990. Series: Occasional Paper, Alberta Historie Sites Service, no. 20.Google Scholar
  99. [ROTT2]
    Rottleuthner, Wilhelm. Alte lokale und nichtmetrische Gewichte und Maβe und ihre Gröβen nach metrischem System. Innsbruck: Universitätsverlag Wagner, 1985.Google Scholar
  100. [RUDO2]
    Rudolff, Christoff. Kunstliche Rechnung mit der Ziffer vnd mit den Zal Pfenningen: daraus nit allain alles so sich in gemainen Kaufmans Hendeln zuetregt sunder auch was zu Silber vn[d] Goldt Rechnung was zu Schickhung des Tegels was aunem Muntzmaister Rechnung belangne zugehorig baide durch die Regl de Tre (auch nich on sundere Vortail) vnd die Welhisch Practick auszurichten gelernnt wirt. Vienna: by Johannem Singriener, 1526.Google Scholar
  101. [PRIB]
    Pribram, Alfred Francis, ed., Rudolf Geyer and Franz Koran. Materialien zur Geschichte der Preise und Löhne in Österreich. Vienna: Carl Ueberreuters Verlag, 1938. Series: Veröffentlichungen des Internationalen Wissenschaftlichen Komitees für die Geschichte der Prelse und Löhne Materialien zur Geschichte der Preise und Löhne in Österreich, no. 1.Google Scholar
  102. [HERK2]
    Herkov, Zlatko. 1964: Das alte Wiener Apothekenpfund. Österrechische Apotheker-Zeitung 13, 189–92.Google Scholar
  103. [ZINS]
    Zinsler, Gilbert. 2004: Was ist ein “Gran”? Die schwierige Bestimmung alter Arznei- und Medizinalgewichte. Oesterreichische Apotheker-Zeitung 16, 772–5.Google Scholar
  104. [MADE]
    Madelung, E. 1919: Physikalische Zeitschrift 19, 524.Google Scholar
  105. [HILL5]
    Hille, R. Ch. 1831: Medicinal-Gewicht. Rust’s Magazin für die gesammte Heilkunde 33, 3, 491. Berlin: G. Reimer.Google Scholar
  106. [STÖR]
    Störck, Anton von. Pharmacopoea Austriaco-provincilais. Vienna: de Trattner, 1774.Google Scholar
  107. [THAA]
    Thaa, George von. Das Maß- und Gewichtswesen und der Aichdienst in Österreich – Sammlung der auf diesen Gegenstand bezüglichen Gesetze, Verordnungen und Normal-Erlässe; mit einer historischen Einleitung, einem chronologischen undeinem Sachregister. Vol. 13 of Taschenausgabe der österreichischen Gesetze. 2nd ed. Wien: Manz, 1900.Google Scholar
  108. [MORT2]
    Mortel, Richard T. 1990: Weights and measures in Mecca during the late Ayyūbid and Mamlūk periods. Arabian Studies 8, 177–186. R[obert] B[ertram] Serjeant and R[obin] L. Bidwell, eds. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  109. [BENG]
    The Bengal and Agra annual guide and gazetteer, for 1841. 2nd ed. Calcutta: W. Rushton and Co., 1841.Google Scholar
  110. [HUNT6]
    Hunter, William Wilson. A Statistical account of Assam.2. Districts of Goalpara, Garo Hills, Naga Hills, Khasi and Jaintia Hills, District of Sylhet and District of Cachar. Guwahati: Spectrum Publishing, 1998. (Reprint of book from 1879).Google Scholar
  111. [ISLA]
    Islam, Sirajul. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 2003.Google Scholar
  112. [NOKI]
    Nōki sangyō chōsa kenkyūjo. Agricultural mechanization in Asia, Volume 8–9. Farm Machinery Industrial Research Corp., 1977.Google Scholar
  113. [SHAS]
    Shashi, Shyam Singh, ed. Encyclopaedia Indica: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh. Volume 100, Ancient Himachal Pradesh. New Delhi: Anmol Publishing, 2001.Google Scholar
  114. [SANG2]
    Sangster, Raymond C. ed. The technological knowledge base for industrializing countries: proceedings of the NBS/AID UNCSTD Seminar, held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., Oct. 16–17, 1978. Dept. of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards: for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1979. Series: NBS special publication, Volume 543.Google Scholar
  115. [FORI2]
    Forir, Henri Joseph. Essai d’un cours de mathématiques, a l’usage des élèves du collège communal de Liège: Arithmétique. Liége: P.-J. Collardin, 1840.Google Scholar
  116. [STAR]
    Staring, W[inand] C[arel] H[ugo]. De binnen- en buitenlandsche maten, gewichten en munten van vroeger en tegenwoordig, met hunne onderlinge vergelijkingen en herleidingen, benevens vele andere, dagelijks te pas komende opgaven en berekeningen. R. W. van Wieringen (ed.). 4th ed. Schoonhoven: S. & W. N. van Nooten, 1902.Google Scholar
  117. [KENN]
    Kennelly, Arthur E. Vestiges of Pre-Metric Weights and Measures Persisting in Metric-System Europe, 1926–1927. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1928.Google Scholar
  118. [BAKA]
    Bakary, Imorou and Epiphane K Badou. Le Commerce au Benin: Les Unites de Mesure des Denrees Alimentaires dans le Borgou et ses Envrirons. Le Cir de Parakou descendu dans les marches. RUN #1274. Published online 16 October 2002.Google Scholar
  119. [DIFF]
    Republic of Benin, Ministere de L’Agriculture de L’elevage et de la Peche. Bio Sourokou, presenter. Diffusion des informations commerciales. Experience du PROMIC. July 2006. (, Access: Aug. 2007)Google Scholar
  120. [GOUI]
    Gouilly, Alphonse. L’Islam dans l’Afrique occidentale francaise. Paris: Larose, 1952.Google Scholar
  121. [ONAS]
    Equipe ONASA. Guide: Saisie des donnees prix a partir des fiches de travail des enqueteurs de l’observatoire de l’ONASA RUN 1280. Published online 31 October 2002.Google Scholar
  122. [DUMK]
    Dumke, Elson and Heinrich Rieber, ed. Handbuch der Entwicklungshilfe, Fortsetzungswerk in Loseblattform: Die Entwicklungshilfe der Industrieländer. 2 volumes. Baden-Baden, Bonn: Lutzeyer, 1962.Google Scholar
  123. [MCCO]
    McConnell, Douglas J. and John L. Dillon. Farm management for Asia: a systems approach. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1997. Series: FAO farm systems management series Vol. 13.Google Scholar
  124. [SCOT7]
    Scott, Gregory J. Marketing Bhutan’s Potatoes: Present Patterns and Future Prospects. Lima: International Potato Center, 1983.Google Scholar
  125. [BLAU2]
    Blau, Josef. Geschichte der deutschen Siedlungen im Chodenwald, besonders der “Zehn deutschen privil. Dorfschaften auf der Herrschaft Kauth und Chodenschloß”. Pilsen, 1937.Google Scholar
  126. [DIRE3]
    Dirección General de Economía Rural, Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería y Colonización. Resumen general de medidas típicas de la República de Bolivia. La Paz: Sección Análisis de Precios, Mercados y Transportes, 1946.Google Scholar
  127. [MINI]
    Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganaderia y Colonizacion. Dirección General de Economia Rural. Resumen General de Medidas típicas de la República de Bolivia. Corrected and revised by the Departamento de Muestreos y Padrones. La Paz: Departamento de Muestreos y Padrones, 1956.Google Scholar
  128. [MINI2]
    Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganaderia y Colonizacion. Dirección General de Economia Rural. Resumen General de medidas típicas de la República de Bolivia. La Paz: Sección Análisis de Precios, Mercados y Transportes, 1946.Google Scholar
  129. [SAOC]
    South African Office of Census and Statistics. Official Year Book of the Union and of Basutoland, Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland. Published under Authority of the Minister of the Interior, 1960.Google Scholar
  130. [WARD3]
    Ward, Daniel. British Bechuanaland proclamations … and the more important government notices. Cape Town: J. Slater, 1893.Google Scholar
  131. [TAND2]
    Tandel, Émile and A. de Leutze. Les communes luxembourgeoises, commiss. De l’arrond. D’Arlon-Virton … VI. A. L’arr. De Neufchâteau. Arlon: Bruck, 1893.Google Scholar
  132. [HARM]
    Harmuth, Louis. Dictionary of textiles. New York: Fairchild publishing company, 1915.Google Scholar
  133. [PEIX]
    Peixoto, Aristeu Mendes, and Francisco Ferrez de Toledo, ed. Enciclopédia agrícola brasileira: I–M – Vol. 4. São Paulo: EdUSP (Escola superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz USP), 2004.Google Scholar
  134. [SMIT5]
    Smith, T. Lynn. Brazil: People and Institutions. 4th ed. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  135. [SCHW2]
    Schwartz, Stuart B. Sugar plantations in the formation of Brazilian society: Bahia, 1550–1835. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. Series: Cambridge Latin American studies.Google Scholar
  136. [GROO2]
    Groome, J. St. J. Evaluation of smallholder farming enterprises, 1965–1974: a report on a project to investigate four smallholder farming enterprises in Brunei: sponsored by Brunei Shell Petroleum Company Ltd. at their Sinaut Agricultural Centre. Kuala Belait: Brunei Shell Petroleum Co., 1975.Google Scholar
  137. [BURT3]
    Burton, Audrey. The Bukharans: a dynastic, diplomatic, and commercial history, 1550–1702. Palgrave Macmillan, 1997.Google Scholar
  138. [DAVI5]
    Davidovich, Elena Abramovna. Istorija monetnogo dela Srednej XVII–XVIII vv.; Zolotye i serebrjanye monety Dzanidov. Dusanbe: Akademija Naul Tadzikskoj SSSR, 1964.Google Scholar
  139. [LEHM]
    Lehman-Haupt, Carl Ferdinand. “Stadion” (Metrologie) In Real-Encyklopädie, second series, III, 1930–1963.Google Scholar
  140. [MEYE3]
    Meyendorff, Georges de and Amédée Jaubert. Voyage d’Orenbourg à Boukhara, fait en 1820: à travers les steppes qui s’étendent à l’est de la Mer d’Aral et au-delà de l’ancien Jaxartes. Paris: Librairie Orientale de Dondey-Dupré Père et Files, 1826.Google Scholar
  141. [LAMO]
    Lamouche, Léon. La Bulgarie dans le passé et le present, étude historique, ethnographique, statistique et militaire. L. Baudoin, 1892.Google Scholar
  142. [LAPA]
    Lapavitsas, Costas. Social and Economic Underpinning of Industrial Development: Evidence from Ottoman Macedonia. Ηλεκτρονικό Δελτίο Οικονομικής Ιστορίας. (paper at, access 2010-11-12).
  143. [SARL]
    Šarlanova, Valentina D. Bălgarski narodni merki. Sofija: Izdat. Agencija FDK, 2001.Google Scholar
  144. [SERB]
    Serbescu, C. Bulgaria și Rumelia de Estistudiu politic si militar. Bucuresci: A. Baer, 1901.Google Scholar
  145. [VEKO]
    Vekov, Mančo. 1998: Maßeinheiten in den bulgarischen Ländern vor der Einfürung des metrischen Maßsystems. Bulgarian historical review/Revue bulgare d´histoire 26, 102–138.Google Scholar
  146. [FRÖH]
    Fröhlich, Gerd and W. Rodewald. Pflanzenschutz in den Tropen. Leipzig: Karl-Marx University, 1963, p. 252. Series: Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Karl-Marx-Universität Leipzig.Google Scholar
  147. [BART]
    Barth, Heinrich. Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa: being a journal of an expedition undertaken under the auspices of H.B.M.’s Government, in the years 1849–55. 5 vol. London: Longman & Co. 1857–58.Google Scholar
  148. [DELA2]
    Delafosse, Maurice. Essai de Manuel Pratique de la Langue Mandé ou Mandingue: étude grammaticale du dialecte dyoula, vocabulaire français-dyoula, histoire de Samori en Mandé, étude comparée des principaux dialectes mandé. Paris, E. Leraux,1901. Series: Ecole des langues orientales vivantes, 3e sér., v. 14.Google Scholar
  149. [DELA3]
    Delafosse, Maurice. La Langue Mandingue et ses Dialectes: malinké, bambara, dioula. Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1929.Google Scholar
  150. [SUND]
    Sundström, Lars. The trade of Guinea. Uppsala, 1965. Thesis. Series: Studia ethnographica Upsaliensia, 24.Google Scholar
  151. [COX]
    Cox, Elizabeth Ellen. Dictionary: Kirundi-English, English-Kirundi. General Missionary Board of the Free Methodist Church, Winona Lake, Indiana, 1969.Google Scholar
  152. [AYMO]
    Aymonier, Étienne. Notice sur le Cambodge. Paris: E. Leroux, 1875.Google Scholar
  153. [LECL]
    Leclère, Adhémard. Les codes cambodgiens. Paris: E. Leroux, 1898.Google Scholar
  154. [MMC]
    Ministère de la marine et des colonies and Ministére de la marine. Revue maritime et coloniale. Vol. 82. Paris: L. Hachette, 1884.Google Scholar
  155. [WICK]
    Wicks, Robert S[igfrid]. Money, markets, and trade in Early Southeast Asia; the development of indigenous monetary systems to AD 1400. Ithaca, N.Y.: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, 1992. Series: Studies on Southeast Asia.Google Scholar
  156. [WISE]
    Wiselius, Jacob Adolf Bruno. De Franschen in Indo-China: Geografisch, administratief en economisch overzicht van Fransch Cochin China, Annam en Kambodja … Zalt-Bommel: J. Noman, 1878.Google Scholar
  157. [STEN]
    Stencel, Robert; Fred Gifford and Eleanor Moron. Astronomy and cosmology at Angor Wat. Science, new series, 193, 4250 (July 23, 1976), pp 281–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. [KONI]
    Konings, Piet and Francis B. Nyamnjoh. Negotiating an Anglophone identity: a study of the politics of recognition and representation in Cameroon. Leiden: Brill, 2003.Google Scholar
  159. [RAJE]
    Rajewski, Brian. Cities of the World: Africa. London: Gale Research Co., 1999.Google Scholar
  160. [CARL2]
    Carlson, Anyangwe. Criminal Law in Cameroon: Specific Offences. Bamenda, Cameroon : Langaa RPCIG, 2011.Google Scholar
  161. [QUIN2]
    Quinn, Frederick. In search of salt: changes in Beti (Cameroon) society, 1880–1960. New York: Berghahn Books, 2006.Google Scholar
  162. [RUDI]
    Rudin, Harry R. Germans in the Cameroons 1884–1914: a case study in modern imperialism. New Havens, 1938.Google Scholar
  163. [ALCU]
    Alcubilla, Marcelo Martinez. Diccionario de la administración española: compilación de la novísima legislación de España, peninsular y ultramarina en todos los ramos de la administración pública. Madrid: Administración, 1892–1894.Google Scholar
  164. [COLL2]
    Collantes, Augustin Esteban and Agustin Alfaro. Diccionario de agricultura y economia rural, redactado bajo la direccion de … Madrid: Printed for Luis Garcia, 1852–55.Google Scholar
  165. [LABR]
    Labrador y Vicuña, Camilo. Tablas grafico-metrico-decimales: ó de correspondencia reciproca entre las pesas y medidas actuales y las del sistema metrico. 8th ed. Madrid: Imprenta del Colegio de Sordo-Mudos, 1853.Google Scholar
  166. [SENN]
    Senna Barcellos, Christiano Josè de. Subsidios para a historia de Cabo Verde e Guiné: memoria apresentada á Academia real das sciencias de Lisboa. Lisboa: Por ordem e na Typographia da Academia, 1899–1913.Google Scholar
  167. [SAMA]
    Samarin, William J. and Charles Russell Taber. A Dictionary of Sango. Hartford, Conn.: Hartford Seminary Foundation, 1965.Google Scholar
  168. [IIC]
    Institut International du Commerce. Recueil de statistique. 1932–40. Bruxelles: Office de statistique commerciale, Institut international du commerce.Google Scholar
  169. [WALK]
    Walker, Alexander. Colombia: being a geographical, statistical, agricultural, commercial, and political account of that country. Volume 2. London: Baldwick, Cradock, and Joy, 1822.Google Scholar
  170. [CHEN]
    Ch’eng-lo, Wu. Chung-kuo tu liang heng shih (History of Chinese Weights and Measures). Rev. ed. by Ch’eng Li-chün. Shanghai: Shang-wu yin-shu kuan, 1957.Google Scholar
  171. [CHIU2]
    Ch’iu Kuang-ming. Chung-kuo li-tai tu-liang heng k’ao (Study of historical weights and measures in China through the dynasties). Beijing: K’o-hsueh, 1992.Google Scholar
  172. [FERG2]
    Ferguson, John Calvin. 1941: Chinese Foot Measure. Monumenta Serica 6, 357–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. [GUO]
    Guo, Zhengzhong. “The Deng Steelyards of the Song Dynasty (960–1279).” In Commemoration of the One Thousandth Anniversary of their Manufacture by Liu Chenggui. Une activité universelle: peser et mesurer à travers les âges. Jean-Claude Hocquet., ed. Caen: Editions du Lys, 1994, 297–306.Google Scholar
  174. [IWAT4]
    Iwata, Shigeo. 1985: The Changes in Linear Measures in China and Japan. Acta Metrologiae Historicae: Travaux du IIIe Congrès International de la Métrologie Historique. Linz, 7–9 Oct. 1983. Linz: Trauner Verlag, 117–37.Google Scholar
  175. [JUN]
    Jun, Wenren, and James M. Hargett. 1989: The Measures Li and Mou During the Song, Liao, and Jin Dynasties. Bulletin of Sung-Yuan Studies 21, 8–30.Google Scholar
  176. [KUOC]
    Kuo Cheng-chung. Chung-kuo ch’uan-heng tu-liang san chih shih-ssu shih-chi. (Chinese Weights and Measures: 4th to 14th centuries). Beijing: She-hui k’o-hsueh, 1993.Google Scholar
  177. [LOEW]
    Loewe, Michael. 1961: The Measurement of Grain during the Han Dynasty. Toung Bao 49, 64–95.Google Scholar
  178. [MORS]
    Morse, Hosea Ballou. The Trade and Administration of China. 3rd rev. ed. Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh, 1921.Google Scholar
  179. [NEED]
    Needham, Joseph. Science and civilisation in China. Vol. 3. Mathematics and the sciences of the heavens and the earth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1959.Google Scholar
  180. [QIU]
    Qiu, Guangming. Zhongguo duliangheng. (The length, capacity, and weight measures of China), Beijing: Xinhua chubanshe, 1992.Google Scholar
  181. [RENN]
    Renn, Jürgen and Matthias Schemmel. Waagen Und Wissen in China: Bericht Einer Forschungsreise. Berlin: Max-Planck-Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte, 2000.Google Scholar
  182. [SCHI3]
    Schinz, Alfred. The Magic Square – Cities in Ancient China. Stuttgart/London: Axel Menges, 1996.Google Scholar
  183. [VOGE]
    Vogel, Hans Ulrich. “Metrology and Metrosophy in Premodern China: A Brief Outline of the State of the Field.” In Une activité universelle: Peser et mesurer à travers les âges. Jean-Claude Hocquet. ed. Caen: Editions du Lys, 1994, pp. 315–32.Google Scholar
  184. [VOGE2]
    Vogel, Hans Ulrich. 1994: Aspects of Metrosophy and Metrology During the Han Period. Extrème-Orient, Extrème-Occident 16, 135–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. [VOGE3]
    Vogel, Hans Ulrich. “Zur Frage der Genauigkeit antiker Längenmaβe und deren interkulturelle Zusammenhänge im Lichte chinesischer metrologischer Sachüberreste.” In Vom rechten Maβ der Dinge: Beiträge zur Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte. Festschrift für Harald Witthöft zum 65. Geburtstag. ed. Rainer S. Elkar. St. Katharinen: Scripta Mercaturae Verlag, 1996.Google Scholar
  186. [WU]
    Wu, Chengluo. Zhongguo dulianghengshi (xiudingben). (A history of Chinese length, capacity and weight measures (revised edition)). Shanghai: Shangwu yinshuguan, 1957.Google Scholar
  187. [SOCI]
    Sociedad y economía en el Valle del Cauca. Fondo de Promoción de la Cultura del Banco Popular, 1983.Google Scholar
  188. [LAMA]
    Laman, K. E. Svensk-Kikongo ordbok. Stockholm: Svenska Missionsförbundets Förlag, 1931.Google Scholar
  189. [BUSE]
    Buse, Jasper, Raututi Taringa, Bruce Biggs and Rangi Moekaá. Cook Islands Maori dictionary. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Ministry of Education, Government of the Cook Islands, etc., 1995. Series: Pacific linguistics., Series C, 123.Google Scholar
  190. [SYED]
    Syed, Saifullah and Ngatokorua Mataio. Agriculture in the Cook Islands: New Directions. Rarotonga: Institute of Pacific Studies of the University of the South Pacific, 1993.Google Scholar
  191. [KISC]
    Kisch, Bruno. Scales and Weights: A Historical Outline. London: Yale University Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  192. [MCCU]
    McCulloch, John Ramsay. A Dictionary, practical, theoretical and historical, of commerce and commercial navigation. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1844.Google Scholar
  193. [MARO]
    Maroto, Alberto Sáenz (Universidad de Costa Rica Facultad de Agronomía). Braulio Carrillo, Reformador Agrícola de Costa Rica. Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica, 1987.Google Scholar
  194. [MEDI]
    Medidas y pesas del sistema métrico, y tablas de equivalencia con las antiguas. San José de Costa Rica: Imprenta nacional, 1885.Google Scholar
  195. [VELO]
    Veloz, Ramón. Manual mercantil: Compendio de datos, cuadros, tablas e información seleccionada de gran utilidad para oficinas públicas y comerciales, estudiantes, periodistas, profesores y público en general, 1956.Google Scholar
  196. [WIGH]
    Wight Washburn, Edward at the International Research Council. International critical tables of numerical data, physics, chemistry and technology. McGraw-Hill for the National Research Council, 1926.Google Scholar
  197. [ABEL]
    Abel, H. 1954: Les Poids à Peser l’or en Côte d’Ivoire. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire, Series B, 16/1–4, 55–82.Google Scholar
  198. [AMON]
    Amon d’Aby, F. J. Croyances religeuses et coutumes juridiques des Agni de la Côte d’Ivoire. Paris: Larose, 1960.Google Scholar
  199. [BARB]
    Barbot, John. A description of the coasts of North and South Guinea; and of Ethiopia Inferior, vulgarly Angola: being a new and accurate account of the western maritime countries of Africa. Vol. 5 of Churchill, Awnsham: A collection of voyages and travels. London, 1732.Google Scholar
  200. [CLOZ]
    Clozel, Francois Joseph and Roger Villamur. Les coutumes indigenes de la Côte d’Ivoire. Paris: Challamel, 1902.Google Scholar
  201. [DEMA]
    de Marrée, J. A. Reizen op en Beschrijving van de Goudkust van Guinea voorzien met de noodige ophelderingen, journalen, kaart, platen en bewijzen…, 2 volumes. Amsterdam: van Cleef, 1817.Google Scholar
  202. [HERK]
    Herkov, Zlatko. Mjere Hrvatskog primorja s osobitim osvrtom na solne mjere i solnu trgovinu. Rijeka: Historijski arhiv u Rijeci i Pazinu, 1971.Google Scholar
  203. [SAIG]
    Saigey, Jacques Frederic. Traité de Métrologie ancienne et moderne, suivi d’un précis de chronologie, et des signes numériques, etc. Paris, 1834.Google Scholar
  204. [WECK]
    Weckmann, Luis. The medieval heritage of Mexico. New York: Fordham University Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  205. [ORIO]
    Oriol y Bernadet, José. Manual de aritmética demostrada: Al alcance de los niños. Barcelona: José Matas, 1845.Google Scholar
  206. [ROBE4]
    Robertson, Ian. Cyprus. London: Benn, 1981. Series: The Blue Guides.Google Scholar

Some information has been obtained by e-mail correspondence from researchers and experts in a variety of areas.

  1. [eTAUB]
    Jess TauberGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Gyllenbok
    • 1
  1. 1.LommaSweden

Personalised recommendations