4D Flow Imaging in Aortic Disease

  • Zhen QianEmail author
  • Xiao Zhou
  • Mani Vannan


The flow hemodynamics in the aorta plays a critical role in the formation and development of aortic disease. 4D flow imaging using phase-contrast magnetic resonance (4D PC-MRI) has been developed and performed in both research and clinical care to study the blood flow in the heart and the great vessels. Compared to 2D flow imaging, 4D PC-MRI allows retrospective visualization and quantification of the time-varying 3D blood flow pattern in the 3D volume of the aorta, and provides more comprehensive visual and quantitative tools to study the complex relationship between flow hemodynamics and aortic pathophysiology in the development of aortic disease. In this chapter, we will describe the image acquisition technique, the image pre-processing method, the data visualization technique, and the quantitative hemodynamic markers of the 4D flow PC-MRI in the aorta. This chapter will also give an overview of the potential clinical applications of the flow visualization and the flow quantifications derived from 4D flow imaging for aortic disease.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cardiovascular ImagingPiedmont Heart InstituteAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Department of CardiologyChinese PLA General HospitalBeijingChina

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