Main Arguments Against the Use of PPM Measures

  • David Sifonios
Part of the European Yearbook of International Economic Law book series (EUROYEAR, volume 3)


The legality of PPM measures has been one of the most controversial issues in WTO law. If these instruments have given rise to intense debates, it is because strong arguments against their use and against their prohibition coexist.


  1. Bagwell, Kyle/Mavroidis, Petros C./Staiger, Robert W., “It’s a Question of Market Access”, 96(1) The American Journal of International Law (2002) 56-76Google Scholar
  2. Bhagwati, Jagdish, “Trade and the Environment: The False Conflict?” in Durwood Zaelke et al. (eds), Trade and the Environment: Law, Economics, and Policy, Vol. 1, Island Press, Washington D.C. 1993, 159-223Google Scholar
  3. Bhagwati, Jagdish, In Defense of Globalization, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2004Google Scholar
  4. Bierman, Frank, “The Rising Tide of Green Unilateralism in World Trade Law, Options for Reconciling the Emerging North-South Conflict”, 35(3) Journal of World Trade (2001) 421-448Google Scholar
  5. Brownlie, Ian (ed. by James Crawford), Brownlie’s Principles of Public International Law, 8th ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford 2012Google Scholar
  6. Chang, Howard F., “An Economic Analysis of Trade Measures to Protect the Global Environment”, 83 Georgetown Law Journal (1995) 2131-2213Google Scholar
  7. Charnovitz, Steve, “The Law of Environmental ‘PPMs’ in the WTO: Debunking the Myth of Illegality”, 27(1) Yale Journal of International Law (2002) 59-110Google Scholar
  8. Cosbey, Aaron, “The Trade, Investment and Environment Interface”, in Shahrukh Rafi Khan (ed.), Trade and Environment: Difficult Choices at the Interface, Zed Books, London/New York 2002, 7-16Google Scholar
  9. Esty, Daniel, Greening the GATT: Trade, Environment and the Future, Institute for International Economics, Washington DC 1994Google Scholar
  10. Gathii, James Thuo, “Neoliberalism, Colonialism and International Governance: Decentering the International Law of Governmental Legitimacy”, 98(6) Michigan Law Review (2000) 1996-2055Google Scholar
  11. GATT Secretariat, “Trade and the Environment”, in International Trade 1990-1991, Vol. 1, Geneva 1992Google Scholar
  12. Horn, Henrik/Mavroidis, Petros C., “The Permissible Reach of National Environmental Policies”, 42(6) Journal of World Trade (2008) 1107-1178Google Scholar
  13. Howse, Robert/Regan, Donald, “The Product/Process Distinction – An Illusory Basis for Disciplining ‘Unilateralism’ in Trade Policy”, 11(2) European Journal of International Law (2000) 249-289Google Scholar
  14. Hudec, Robert E., “The Product-Process Distinction in GATT/WTO Jurisprudence”, in Marco Bronckers and Reinhard Quick (eds), New Directions in International Economic Law: Essays in Honour of John H. Jackson, Kluwer Law International, The Hague 2000, 187-217Google Scholar
  15. Jackson, John, “World Trade Rules and Environmental Policies: Congruence or Conflict?”, 49 Washington & Lee Law Review (1992) 1227-1278Google Scholar
  16. Jackson, John, The World Trading System, The MIT Press, Cambridge Mass./London 1997Google Scholar
  17. Jansen, Bernhard/Lugard, Maurits, “Some Considerations on Trade Barriers Erected for Non-Economic Reasons and WTO Obligations”, 2(3) Journal of International Economic Law (1999) 530-536Google Scholar
  18. Joshi, Manoj, “Are Eco-Labels Consistent with World Trade Organization Agreements?” 38(1) Journal of World Trade (2004) 69-92Google Scholar
  19. Marceau, Gabrielle, “WTO Dispute Settlement and Human Rights”, 13(4) European Journal of International Law (2002) 753-814Google Scholar
  20. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Process and Production Methods (PPMs): Conceptual Framework and Considerations on Use of PPM-Based Trade Measures, OCDE/DG(97)137, Paris 1997 (cit. OECD [1997b])Google Scholar
  21. Okubo, Atsuko, “Environmental Labelling Programs and the GATT/WTO Regime”, 11 Georgetown International Law Review (1999) 599-646Google Scholar
  22. Pauwelyn, Joost, “Recent Books on Trade an Environment: GATT Phantoms Still Haunt the WTO”, 15(3) European Journal of International Law (2004) 575-592Google Scholar
  23. Petersmann, Ernst-Ulrich, International and European Trade and Environmental Law after the Uruguay Round, Kluwer Law International, London 1996Google Scholar
  24. Schoenbaum, Thomas J., “International Trade and Protection of the Environment: The Continuing Search for Reconciliation”, 91(2) American Journal of International Law (1997) 268-313Google Scholar
  25. Strauss, Andrew L., “From GATTzilla to the Green Giant: Winning the Environmental Battle for the Soul of the World Trade Organization”, 19 University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Economic Law (1998) 769-818Google Scholar
  26. Trebilcock, Michael J./Giri, Shiva K., The National Treatment Principle in International Trade Law, American Law and Economics Association Annual Meeting, Working Paper n° 8, 2004 (

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Sifonios
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations