Advertisement

Nail Reactions to Antibiotics, Antimalarials, and Other Medications

  • John Montgomery Yost
Chapter

Abstract

Many drug classes have been associated with drug-induced nail abnormalities, including antimicrobials, antimalarials, cardiovascular agents, anti-inflammatories, antirheumatics, hormones, neuropsychiatric medications, as well as other agents. The specific nail dystrophies changes that result with each individual agent is determined by the portion of the nail apparatus affected. Photoonycholysis, chromonychia, dyspigmentation of the nail unit, altered growth rate, Beaus’s lines, onychomadesis, paronychia, and periungual pyogenic granulomas represent many common sequelae associated with systemic therapy. These subsequent drug-related dystrophies are often largely asymptomatic and self-limited, however are nonetheless important for clinicians to recognize.

Keywords

Drug induced nail changes Photoonycholysis Onycholysis Chromonychia Melanonychia Xanthonychia Leukonychia Beau’s lines Onychomadesis Red lunulae Blue lunulae Nail growth rate Paronychia Pyogenic granuloma Onychocryptosis 

Supplementary material

324020_4_En_28_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (31 kb)
Patient Handout (PDF 30 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Piraccini. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2004;3(1):57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Piraccini. Drug Saf. 1999;21(3):187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Segel. Arch Intern Med. 1963;112:165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baran. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2002;18:202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baran. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17(6):1012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beadle. Br J Dermatol. 1981;104(5):549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hario. J Dermatol. 1988;15(6):540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Parodi. Photodermatology. 1987;4(3):160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baran. Act Derm Venereol. 1997;77(2):169.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Logan. Br J Dermatol. 1985;113(5):605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Terry. Lancet. 1954;266(6815):757.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lindsay. Arch Intern Med. 1967;119(6):583.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Muehrcke. Br Med J. 1956;1(4979):1327.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tan. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1989;14:335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fenton. Lancet. 1981;2(8257):1230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hindson. Br Med J. 1982;284(6326):1368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    McCormack. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1982;7(5):678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mikulaschek. J Rheumatol Suppl. 1980;6:100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Greist. Eur J Rheumatol Inflamm. 1982;5(2):138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Byrne. Postgrad Med J. 1976;52(610):535.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Warin. Arch Dermatol. 1979;115(2):235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Prasad. Indian J Dermatol Venerol Leprol. 2002;68(2):116.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rau. Arch Dermatol. 1978;114(3):448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zala. Dermatologica. 1977;154(4):203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dawber. Arch Dermatol. 1978;114(11):1715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Balato. Photodermatol. 1984;1(4):202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Baran. Ann Dermatol Venerol. 1990;117(5):367.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Orentreich. Arch Dermatol. 1961;83:730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bethell. Brit Med J. 1977;2:96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bettley. Proc Roy Soc Med. 1974;67:600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Carter. Br Med J. 1966;2:1198.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Douglas AC. Br J Dis Chest. 1963;57:44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kahn. Arch Dermatol. 1971;103(1):94–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kingsley. Cent Afr J Med. 1963;5358:282.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cabre. Z Haut Geschlechtskr. 1963;35:131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cabre. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 1972;63(5–6):211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cavens. Cutis. 1981;27:53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rabar. J Travel Med. 2004;11(6):386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Carroll. J Drugs Dermatol. 2003;2(6):662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Passier. BMJ. 2004;329(7460):265.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Badri. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat. 2004;13(4):135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Frank. Arch Dermatol. 1971;103(5):520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pazzaglia. Pediatr Dermatol. 2014;31(1):e26–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chandran. Intern Med J. 2013;43(12):1349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nag. Pediatr Rev. 2015;36(3):e8–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wong. Pediatrics. 2000;106(1):e13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jeanmougin. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1982;109(2):165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wolf. Ugeskr Laeg. 2011;173(9):661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Atiq. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2013;157(27):A6429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cohen. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1993;12:702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Deveber. Can Med Assoc J. 1962;Jan 27;86(4):168–172.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Norton. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1980;2(6):451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wlodek. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2014;39(6):746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kestel. Cutis. 1981;28:53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hatch. J Am Podiatry Assoc. 1978;68:172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ibsen. Acta Derm Venerol. 1983;63:555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lasser. Pediatrics. 1978;61:98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rothstein. Arch Dermatol. 1977;113:520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Verma. Indian J Dermatol. 1973;18(2):23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gancedo Q. Med Clin (Barc). 1988;90(15):636.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gventer. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1985;75(12):658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mackie. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1979;4:111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kanwar. Cutis. 1979;23:657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kestel. Arch Dermatol. 1971;160:766.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Baran. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21(6):1165.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mallon. Br J Dermatol. 1994;130:794.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ronger. Arch Dermatol. 2002;138:1327.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Caro. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1980;3(3):317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gordon. Arch Dermatol. 1985;121(5):618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Leffell. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991;24(3):501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Morrow. Am J Ophthalmol. 1988;125(3):396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Pepine. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;28(2 pt 2):292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ban. J Dermatol. 2007;34(10):699.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tavares. CMAJ. 2011;183(2):224.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kimyai-Asadi. J Drugs Dermatol. 2002;1(2):197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Angeloni. Cutis. 1987;40(3):229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mooney. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1988;14:1011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    LaPorta. J Clin Periodontol. 2005;32(2):119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Daniel. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984;10(2 pt 1):250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Chiacchio D. An Bras Dermatol. 2013;88(2):309.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Thomas. Dermatol Clin. 2013;31(4):615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tosti. Arch Deramtol. 2002;138(10):1369.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Adigun. Dermatol Ther. 2012;25(6):491.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Thomas. Dermatol Ther. 2007;20(1):3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Braun. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;56(5):835.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ronger. Arch Dermatol. 2002;138(10):1327.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Koga. J Dermatol. 2011;38(1):45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Tosti. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2009;28(1):49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Segal. Arch Intern Med. 1963;112:165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Akcam. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24(9):845.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hendricks. Arch Dermatol. 1980;116:438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Zaun D-M. Dyschromia. In: Zaun D-M, editor. Krankhafte Veränderungen des Nagels. 7th ed. Ballingen: Spitta; 1999.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Revuz. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1983;110(9):765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Baran. Dermatologica. 1986;173(4):185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mahajan. Australas J Dermatol. 2005;46(2):104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Guptha. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2005;71(1):47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Burkhardt. Scand J Infect Dis. 2003;35(8):516–8.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Piraccini. Dermatol Clin. 2006;24(3):387.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Slaughenhoupt. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1999;18:76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Canning. J Urol. 2000;163(4):1386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Daniel. Cutis. 1985;3(3):431.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Pakti. Lepr Rev. 1989;60(4):274.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kromann. Arch Dermatol. 1982;118(7):531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Pigatto. J Eur Acad Derm Venerol. 2008;80:1269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Dawn. Dermatology 1995;191:342–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sharma. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2005;71(1):49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Aksoy. Eur J Dermatol. 2008;28(3):362.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Baran R. Br J Dermatol. 1991;125(6):592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Eastwood. Br J Dermatol. 1969;81(10):750.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Shelly. Cutis. 1985;35:220.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Shah. J Pediatr. 2012;161(1):166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Runne. Curr Probl Dermatol. 1981;9:102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Dixit. Int J Lep. 1989;61(4):476.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ward. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;46(2):284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Furth. Ann Intern Med. 1987;107(3):350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Don. Ann Intern Med. 1990;112(2):145.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Groark. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21(5):1032.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Dupon. Scand J Infect Dis. 1989;21(2):237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Vaiopoulos. Ann Intern Med. 1988;108(5):777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Panwalker. Ann Intern Med. 1987;107(6):943.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Masoliver. Arch Dermatol. 1988;124(10):1570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Anders. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21(4):792.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Sahai. AIDS. 1991;5(11):1395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Grau-Massanes. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990 Apr;22(4):687–8.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Fisher. Cutis. 1989;43(6):552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Bendick. Arch Dermatol. 1989;125(9):1285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Greenberg. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22(2):327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Gallais. Br J Dermatol. 1992;126(4):387.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Tosti. Dermatolgica. 1990;180(4):217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Belda. Farm Hosp. 2007;31(2):128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Granel. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1997;124(6–7):460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Bendick. Z Hautkr. 1989;64(2):91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Depaoli. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 1989 Mar;124(3):71–2.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Merenich. Am J Med. 1989;86(4):469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Chawre. Indian J Pharm. 2012;44(6):801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Rahav. Scand J Infect Dis. 1992;24(5):557.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Lahoz G. Rev Clin Esp. 1988;183(5):278.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Cohen. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996;34(6):943.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Harindra. Br J Clin Pract. 1993;47(4):215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Luther. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2007;8(4):221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Williams. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156(1):163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Russo. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999;40(2):322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Zerboni. Lancet. 1998;351(9111):1256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Tosti. Br J Dermatol. 1999;140(6):1165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Alam. Cutis. 1999;64(4):277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Piraccini. Clin Dermatol. 2013;31(5):618.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Wu. J Int AIDS Soc. 2014;17(4 Suppl 3):19580.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Sass. Dermatology. 2000;200(1):40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Colson. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32(1):140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Dauden. Br J Dermatol. 2000;142(5):1063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Bourezane. AIDS. 1999;13(15):2181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Bouscarat. NEJM. 1998;338(24):1776.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Garcia-Silva. AIDS. 2000;14(9):1289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Calista. Eur J Dermatol. 2000;10(4):292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    James. Ann Pharmacother. 2001;35(7–8):881.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Terheggen. AIDS. 2004;18(11):1612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Dominguez. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21(5):710.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Borges-Costa. Int J Dermatol. 2013;52(12):1581.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Schmutz. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2014;141(6–7):485.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Lorenzi. J Dermatol Treat. 2003;14(3):177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Tsilika. JAMA Dermatol. 2013;149(6):675.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Doncker. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1994;19(5):404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Guerra. J Invest Dermatol. 1996. 106(4):878.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Shelley. Cutis. 1992;49(6):385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Haneke. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995;32(1):72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Faergemann. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995;32(5 pt 1):750.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Baran. J Dermatol Treat. 1997;8(2):93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Möhrenschlager. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009;23(2):227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Luyten. Dermatology. 1996;192(4):406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Baran. Br J Dermatol. 2002;147(1):189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Tosti. Br J Dermatol. 2002;146(6):1064.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Baran. J Drug Dermatol. 2009;8(3):276.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Hawsawi A. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27(6):675.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Imadojemu. Int J Dermatol. 2015;54(11):e497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Palmeri. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2000;38(2):95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Weaver. Cutis. 2000 Sep;66(3):211–2.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Bonifaz. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21(5):699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Daniel. Skin Appendage Disord. 2017;3:15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Chen. Acta Derm Venereol. 2002;82(5):398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Zheng. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2016;30:1.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Kar. Int J Dermatol. 1998;37(9):719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Positano. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 1989;6(2):417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Willis. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2015;4(2):e22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Malani. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59(3):e61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Dorbani. Presse Med. 2012;41(9 Pt 1):879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Tuffanelli. Arch Dermatoll. 1963;88(4):419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Ofori-Adjei. Lancet. 1985;326(8450):331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Barr. US Navy Med Bull. 1944;43:929.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Bailin. Clin Rheum Dis. 1982;8(2):493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Kleinegger. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2000;90(2):189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Modny. Cutis. 1973;11:789.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Dodd. Br J Dermatol. 1988;119(suppl 33):74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Koplon. Arch Dermatol. 1966;94:333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Baran. Concours Med. 1973;95:1007.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Ginsberg. JAMA. 1946;131(10):808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Kierland. JAMA. 1946;131(10):809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Bauer. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1981;4(2):239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Alden. Arch Derm Syphilol. 1947;56(1):13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Campbell. Med J Aust. 1960;47(1):956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Bola. Lancet. 1962. 279(7233):807.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Maguire. Proc R Soc Med. 1960;53(7):563.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Levy. SAMJ. 1982;62(20):735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Sifuentes. Rheumatol Clin. 2013;9(6):381.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Kalabalikis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2010;90(6):657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Sibilia. Rev Rhum Engl Ed. 1995;62(11):795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Weinel. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58(2 suppl 2):A36.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Ilchyshyn. Acta Derm Venereol. 1983;63(6):554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Lubach. Hautartz. 1979;30(10):547.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Lehuede. Joint Bone Spine. 2002;69(4):406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Mattingly. Ann Rheum Dis. 1979;38(5):475.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Vaudey. Clin Rheumatol. 2004;23(4):376.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Dubost. Sem Hop Paris. 1988;64(23):1548.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Ishizaki. Int J Dermatol. 1995;34(7):493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Nakagomi. Rheumatol Int. 2013;33(3):793.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Isozaki. Clin Med Insights Case Rep. 2010;3:63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Yamamoto. Rheumatol Int. 2007;27(6):603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Ichikawa. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 1991;16(5–6):203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Taki. BMJ Case Rep. 2012 Mar 20;2012.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Bjellerup. Acta Derm Venereol. 1989;69(4):339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Thivolet. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Syphiligr. 1968;75(1):61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Roest. Br J Dermatol. 2001;145(5):855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Fam. Arthritis Rheum. 1984;27(1):119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Launay. Rev Med Interne. 1997;18(6):494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Ter Borg. Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43(6):1420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Voigt. Hautarzt. 1977;28:421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Madsen. Br Med J. 1982;284(6331):1782.Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Martin. Br Med J. 1982;285(6334):61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Fenton. Br Med J. 1982;284(6324):1228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Fenton. J R Soc Med. 1983;76(6):525.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Halsey. Br Med J. 1982;284(6326):1365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Al-Kathiri. Oman Med J. 2016;31(1):65.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Powell. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001. 2001;45(4):616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Wakelin. Br J Dermatol. 1994;131(1):147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Higgins. Br J Dermatol. 1995;132(5):829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Olujohungbe. Lancet. 1993;342(8879):1111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Siragusa. Br J Dermatol. 1999;140(6):1198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Geyer. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;50(2):229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Qiao. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009;34(2):257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Arinsoy. Int J Clin Pract. 2005;59(7):863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Sharma. Transpl Int. 2002;15(9–10):517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Sfikakis. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52(8):2513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Mishra. J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(1):16.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Musumeci. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2010;11(Suppl 1):55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Cunha. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2002;16(Suppl 1):250.Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Gaylis. J Rheumatol. 2003;30(2):407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Varotti. Eur J Dermatol. 1997;7(5):395.Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    Al-Niaimi. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009;34(4):527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Rindone. Am J Ther. 2011;18(6):e277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Talmadge. Pharmacotherapy. 2003;23(5):674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Hyman. Am J Med. 1987;82(6):1233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Raj. Br J Haematol. 2001;114(4):740.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Dulicek. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2013;19(1):100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Cakebread. BMJ Case Rep. 2014 Jun 12;2014.Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Lebsack. Postgrad Med. 1982;71(5):81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Akle. J R Soc Med. 1981;74(3):219.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Park. Arch Dermatol. 1993;129(6):780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Soisson. Mil Med. 1994;159(3):252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Pettifor. J Pediatr. 1975;86(3):459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Hou. Chang Gung Med J. 2004;27(9):691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Sathienkijkanchai. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88(suppl 8):S246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Takci. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2012;31(4):332.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Ross. Br Med J. 1963;1(5334):866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Schmutz. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2013;140(4):331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Gin. Australas J Dermatol. 2013;54(1):59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Jensen. Acta Med Scand. 1976;199(5):363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Glass. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131(9):1134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Faure. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1979;106(2):11.Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Greiner. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;39(3):486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Bostanci. Int J Dermatol. 2004;43(4):316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Tegner. Acta Derm Venerol. 1976;56:493.Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    Baran. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27(3):261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Naeyaert. Br J Dermatol. 1987;117(3):371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Graeber. Cutis. 1981;28(6):633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Kirkham. Lancet. 1976;308(7995):1137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Feiler-Ofry. Ophthalmologica. 1981;182(3):153.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Bruggemeyer. Lancet. 1984;1(8390):1352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Borders. Ann Intern Med. 1986;105(2):305.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Smit. Nephron. 1983;34(3):196.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Bories. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2005;132(3):265.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Packard. Pharmacotherapy. 2004;24(4):546.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Ameen. Br J Dermatol. 2000;142(3):575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Sladden. Br J Dermatol. 2005;153(1):219.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Erbagci. Saudi Med J. 2004;25(1):103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Stern. Arch Intern Med. 1989;149(4):829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Rutherford. Australas J Dermatol. 2007;48(1):35.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Mahler. Arch Dermatol. 1986;122(9):1062.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Conroy. Cutis. 1996;57(6):425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Wilsmhurst. Br Heart J. 1983;49(5):447.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Klein. Schoch Letter. 1990;40:29.Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    Wilkerson. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;20(3):453.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Shu. J Anal Toxicol. 2015;39(8):624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Lin. J Anal Toxicol. 2004;28(6):411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Suzuki. J Anal Toxicol. 1989;13(3):176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Suzuki. Forensic Sci Int. 1984;24(1):9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Cirimele. Arch Toxicol. 1995;70(1):68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Kim. Arch Pharm Res. 2008;31(6):805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Kim. Forensic Sci Int. 2010;194(1–3):108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Lemos. J Anal Toxicol. 1999;23(3):147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Engelhart. J Anal Toxicol. 1998;22(4):314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Engelhart DA. J Anal Toxicol. 2002;26(7):489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Madry. Drug Test Anal. 2014;6(6):533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Hang. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013;405(23):7281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Irving. Forensic Sci Int. 2007;166(1):58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Ragoucy-Sengler. J Anal Toxicol. 2005;29(7):765.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Sykutera. Arch Med Sadowej Kryminol. 2014;64(3):165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Madry. Bioanalysis. 2014;6(23):3183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Garside. J Forensic Sci. 1998;43(5):974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Ropero-Miller. J Anal Toxicol. 2000;24(7):496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Cingolani. J Anal Toxicol. 2004;28(2):128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Zamora-Quezada. Ann Intern Med. 1988;108(4):564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Rudolph. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60(2):346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Payne-James. J Forensic Legal Med. 2007;14(2):65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Torras. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21(6):1304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Holzberg. Lancet. 1984;1:8382–869.Google Scholar
  315. 315.
    Sharma. CMAJ. 2013;185(5):E329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Jensen. Acta Derm Venereol. 1981;61(3):261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Salem. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010;24(6):649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Hislop. Q J Med. 1983;52(206):232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Rao. Int J Dermatol Venerol Leprol. 2004;70:79.Google Scholar
  320. 320.
    Johnson. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1981;5(2):191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Hanson. J Pediatr. 1975;87(2):285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Nagy. Arch Dermatol. 1981;117(9):593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Ozkinay. Turk J Pediatr. 1998;40(2):273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Loughnan. Lancet. 1973;1(7794):70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Hill. Am J Dis Child. 1974;127(5):645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Kelly. Am J Med Genet. 1984;19(3):445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Gaily. J Pediatr. 1988;112(4):530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Nanda. Pediatr Dermatol. 1989;6(2):130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Dang. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1993;120(9):621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    D'Souza. Arch Dis Child. 1991;66(3):320.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Babu. J Assoc Physicians India. 2012;60:64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Prakash. Indian Pediatr. 1978;15(10):866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Singh. Case Rep Anesthesiol. 2012;2012:370412.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Silver. J Hand Surg [Am]. 1981;6(3):262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Pinto. Am J Dis Chil. 1977;131(4):452.Google Scholar
  336. 336.
    Barr. J Pediatr. 1974;84(2):254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Aase. Am J Dis Child. 1974;127(5):758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Yang. Obstet Gynecol. 1978;52(6):682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Godbole. Indian J Pediatr. 1999;66(2):290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Jager-Roman. J Pediatr. 1986;108(6):997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Thakker. Indian Pediatr. 1991;28(1):73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Holder. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd. 1990;138(1):34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Nau. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1981;219(3):768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Rosen. J Pediatr. 1978;92(2):240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Niesen. Neuropediatrics. 1985;16(3):167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Bravo. BMJ Case Rep. 2011 Aug 4;2011.Google Scholar
  347. 347.
    Autti-Rämö. Am J Med Genet. 2006;140(2):137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Crain. Am J Dis Child. 1983;137(11):1069.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Verdeguer. Pediatr Dermatol. 1988;5(1):56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Kanwar. Dermatology. 1997;194(4):373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Buka. J Drugs Dermatol. 2003;2(5):545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Solak. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2016;17:1.Google Scholar
  353. 353.
    Poretti. Pediatr Dermatol. 2009;26(6):749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Grech. Eur Neurol. 1999;42(1):64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Baheti. Neurol India. 2015;63(1):120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Mishra. Int J Dermatol. 1989;28(7):460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Prabhakara. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2000;66(2):103.Google Scholar
  358. 358.
    Chopra. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2000 Mar-Apr;66(2):103.Google Scholar
  359. 359.
    Toubel. Nouv Dermatol. 2008;27:73.Google Scholar
  360. 360.
    Shkolnik. JAMA Dermatol. 2014;150(9):984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Clark. Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2015;6(1):15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Beacher. BMC Oral Health. 2015;15(1):122.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Chen. J Forensic Legal Med. 2014;22:62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Gregoriou. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28(2):219.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Satanove. JAMA. 1965;191(4):263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Rudolph. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;26(1):135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Hooper. Am J Psychiatry. 1981;138(11):1519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    Don. Cutis. 1985;84:19.Google Scholar
  369. 369.
    Dalle. Br J Dermatol. 2006;154(5):999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Longstreth. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1985;13(1):149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. 371.
    Gucuyener. Allergy. 1999;54(7):767.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    Teive. Neurology. 2011;76(18):1605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    Miller. NEJM. 1973;288(17):916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    Runne. Curr Prob Dermatol. 1981;9:102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    Gutiérrez V. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2003;17(3):324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Fairris. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1984;9(3):267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. 377.
    Baran. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2014;28(2):257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. 378.
    Krebs. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1981;70(44):1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. 379.
    Sarkar. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012;16(5):819.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. 380.
    Chiriac. Dermatol Online J. 2014 Sep 16;20(9).Google Scholar
  381. 381.
    Cohen. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;26(2 pt 2):292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. 382.
    Jorizzo. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983;8(5):711.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. 383.
    Leider. Arch Dermatol. 1955;71(5):648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. 384.
    Chapman. South Med J. 1997;90(4):395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. 385.
    Somin. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;5(11):A26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. 386.
    Nixon. Cutis. 1981;27(2):181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. 387.
    Reich. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2006;14(1):30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Bondy. NEJM. 1969;281:1056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. 389.
    Lerner. NEJM. 1964;270:539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. 390.
    Knight. Med J Aust. 1974;2(18):680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. 391.
    Knight. Med J Aust. 1975;1(9):286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. 392.
    Saito. J Dermatol. 2007;34(10):696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. 393.
    Gregoriou. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009;34(8):e1020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. 394.
    Galosi. Arch Dermatol Res. 1985;277:138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. 395.
    Baran. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1982;109(4):367.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  396. 396.
    Lindskov. Arch Dermatol. 1982;118(8):535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. 397.
    Baran. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1986;11(2):148.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. 398.
    Campbell. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983;9:708.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  399. 399.
    Kaplan. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983;8(1):95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  400. 400.
    Onder. J Dermatol Treat. 2001;12(2):115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. 401.
    Ferguson. Oral Surg. 1984;58:283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. 402.
    Garioch. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1989;14(3):261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. 403.
    Baran. J Dermatol Treat. 1990;1(3):151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. 404.
    Ruest. Schweiz Med Wochensch. 1979;109:1921.Google Scholar
  405. 405.
    Voorhees. Arch Dermatol. 1981;117(7):418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. 406.
    Hodak. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984;11(6):1166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. 407.
    Blumental. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984;10(4):677.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. 408.
    De Raeve. Dermatologica. 1986;172(5):278–80.Google Scholar
  409. 409.
    Gaudiello. Dermatol Reports. 2011;3(1):e2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. 410.
    Baran. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1983;110(8):657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  411. 411.
    Baran. Arch Dermatol. 1984;120(8):993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. 412.
    Zweegers. Int J Dermatol. 2014;53(3):e221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. 413.
    Alli. Cutan Ocul Tox. 2015;23:1.Google Scholar
  414. 414.
    Yung. Br J Dermatol. 2005;153(3):671.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. 415.
    Griffiths. J Dermatol Treat. 1990;1:265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. 416.
    Bottomley. Br J Dermatol. 1992 Oct;127(4):447–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. 417.
    Dharmagunawardena. Br J Dermatol. 1997;127(4):161.Google Scholar
  418. 418.
    Winther. Acta Derm Venereol. 2014;94(6):719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  419. 419.
    Morgan. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1992;17(1):65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  420. 420.
    Ortonne. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1978;105(10):887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  421. 421.
    Briffa V. Br Med J. 1977;2(6095):1150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  422. 422.
    Parkins. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2015;40(3):331.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  423. 423.
    Hann. Photodermatol. 1989;6(2):98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. 424.
    MacDonald. Br J Dermatol. 1986;114(3):395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. 425.
    Naik. Br J Dermatol. 1979;100(2):229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. 426.
    Naik. Int J Dermatol. 1982;21(5):275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. 427.
    Weiss. Int J Dermatol. 1989;28(3):188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  428. 428.
    Trattner. Int J Dermatol. 1990;29(4):310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  429. 429.
    Hogan. Ann Intern Med. 1984;101(2):283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  430. 430.
    Hochman. Cutis. 1993;51(4):303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. 431.
    Colombo. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23(6):1127.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  432. 432.
    Scheinfeld. J Drugs Deramtol. 2007;6(8):782.Google Scholar
  433. 433.
    Lassus. J Int Med Res. 1993;21(4):209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  434. 434.
    Lassus. J Int Med Res. 1997;25(4):206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. 435.
    Barel. Arch Dermatol Res. 2005;297(4):147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. 436.
    Patel. J Dermatolog Treat. 2002;13(1):41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  437. 437.
    Lim. Med J Aust. 2008;188(2):121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  438. 438.
    Prior. Lancet. 1978;312(8096):947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  439. 439.
    Silk. Gastroenterology. 1975;68(4 Pt 1):790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  440. 440.
    Malmquist. Postgrad Med J. 1980;56(662):862.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. 441.
    Levine. Lancet. 1981;1(8226):919.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  442. 442.
    Campbell. Br J Dermatol. 1931;43(4):186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. 443.
    Wise. Arch Dermatol Syphilol. 1933;27(4):549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  444. 444.
    Lacour. Presse Med. 1987;16(32):1599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  445. 445.
    Amit. Ann Intern Med. 1997;127(12):1137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  446. 446.
    Baran. Cutis. 1972;9:307.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nail Disorders Clinic, Department of Dermatology, Stanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations