Advertisement

Submillimetre-Wavelength Telescopes

  • Jacob W. M. Baars
  • Hans J. Kärcher
Chapter
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 447)

Abstract

Once the first larger mm telescopes had demonstrated the importance of the very high frequencies for astrophysical research, efforts were undertaken to open up the submillimetre-wavelength regime, i.e. frequencies from 300 GHz to 1 GHz or higher. From the best sites on earth, observations are possible up to about 1 GHz in the windows between the absorption lines of tropospheric water vapour (Fig. 6.1). Several institutes realised dedicated submm telescopes between 1987 and 1995, the three most significant being the JCMT and the CSO on Hawaii and the SMT/HHT on Mt. Graham in Arizona. An array of eight 6-m antennas, the Submillimeter Array (SMA) on Hawaii came into operation in 2004 (Ho et al. 2004). The definitive instrument is ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submm Array), consisting of more than 60 antennas located at 5000 m altitude in northern Chile and covering the entire frequency range from 30 to 950 GHz. It began operation with a partial array in 2008 and construction was completed in 2014.

References

  1. Baars, J.W.M., Martin, R.N., Mangum, J.G., McMullin, J.P., Peters, W.L.: The Heinrich Hertz Telescope and the submillimeter telescope observatory. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific. 111, 627–646 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baars, J.W.M., Lucas, R., Mangum, J.G., Lopez-Perez, J.A.: Near-field radio holography of large reflector antennas. IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 49(5), 24–41 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bregman, J.D., Casse, J.L.: A simulation of the thermal behaviour of the UK-NL mm wave telescope. Int. J. Infrared mm Waves. 6, 25 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Greve, A., Mangum, J.G.: Mechanical measurements of the ALMA prototype antennas. IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 50(2), 66 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Guilloteau, S., et al.: The IRAM interferometer on Plateau de Bure. Astron. Astrophys. 262, 624–633 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Ho, P.T.P., Moran, J.M., Lo, K.Y.: The submillimeter array. Astrophys. J. 616, L1 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Iguchi, S., Morita, K., Sugimoto, M., Vila Vilaró, B., Saito, M., Hasegawa, T., Kawabe, R., Tatematsu, K., Sakamoto, S., Kiuchi, H., Okumura, S.K., Kosugi, G., Inatani, J., Takakuwa, S., Iono, D., Kamazaki, T., Ogasawara, R., Ishiguro, M.: The Atacama Compact Array (ACA). Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 61, 1–12 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Laing, R.: The performance of the European ALMA antennas. 36th ESA Antenna Workshop (2015)Google Scholar
  9. Leighton, R.B.: A 10-meter telescope for millimeter and sub-millemeter astronomy. Technical Report of California Institute of Technology (May 1978)Google Scholar
  10. Mäder, H.F., Stenvers, K.-H., Gatzlaff, H., Wilms, H.-F.: The 10-m submillimeter-wave telescope. Technische Mittelungen Krupp (Eng.) 1, 27–42 (1990)Google Scholar
  11. Mangum, J.G.: The performance of the North American ALMA antennas. 36th ESA Antenna Workshop (2015)Google Scholar
  12. Mangum, J.G., Baars, J.W.M., Greve, A., Lucas, R., Snel, R.C., Wallace, P., Holdaway, M.: Evaluation of the ALMA prototype antennas. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific. 118, 1257–1301 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Serabyn, E., Phillips, T.G., Masson, C.R.: Surface figure measurements of radio telescopes with a shearing interferometer. Appl. Opt. 30, 1227–1241 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Snel, R.C., Mangum, J.G., Baars, J.W.M.: Study of the dynamics of large reflector antennas with accelerometers. IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 49(4), 84–101 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Stenvers, K.-H., Wilms, H.-F.: Entwicklung und Optimierung eines tragenden CFK-Raumfachwerks für astronomische Teleskope. VDI-Berichte. 734, 75–92 (1989)Google Scholar
  16. Woody, D., Vail, D., Schaal, W.: Design parameters and measured performance of the Leighton 10.4-m-diameter radio telescopes. Proc. IEEE. 82, 673–686 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Woody, D.P., et al.: CARMA: a new heterogeneous millimeter-wave interferometer. Proc. SPIE Millimeter Submillimeter Detect. Astron. II. 5498, 30 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Wootten, A., Thompson, A.R.: The Atacama large millimeter/submillimeter array. Proc. IEEE. 97, 1463–1471 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacob W. M. Baars
    • 1
  • Hans J. Kärcher
    • 2
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für RadioastronomieBonnGermany
  2. 2.MT Mechatronics - consultantKarbenGermany

Personalised recommendations