Advertisement

The Emergence of the European Union as a Very Incoherent Empire

  • Risto Heiskala
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in European Political Sociology book series (PSEPS)

Abstract

In the mid-1980s, the then President of the European Commission, Jacques Delors, described the European Community (EC), the predecessor of the European Union (EU), as a UPO or ‘unidentified political object’. He was emphasising its unique nature as a political institution that was neither a federal state nor simply a set of international treaties (Delors 1985: 8). The purpose of this chapter is, first, to provide the reader with the necessary basic information on the ‘UPO’ that will be required when reading the other chapters of this book. Some readers may already be well acquainted with this material, but they too will, I hope, welcome the chapter’s second purpose, which is to start a theoretically organised discussion on the realistic alternative future scenarios of the EU. This discussion is the topic of Chap. 13 of this book, when all the material from the other chapters will be available, but the description of the history and current nature of the EU provided in the present chapter, organised with the help of the conceptual toolbox of Michael Mann’s historical sociology (Mann 1986, 1993a, 2012, 2013; Heiskala 2016), paves the way for Chap. 13 and opens the discussion about the union’s future scenarios.

Bibliography

  1. Beck, U. 2013. German Europe. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  2. Bourdieu, P. 1996. The State Nobility. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  3. Churchill, W. 1946. Speech Delivered at the University of Zurich, September 19. http://www.churchill-society-london.org.uk/astonish.html. Accessed 26 Jul 2016.
  4. Commission of the European Communities. 1985. Completing the Internal Market, White Paper from the Commission to the European Council, COM (85) 310 Final. Milan, June 28–29. Available from: http://europa.eu/documents/comm/white_papers/pdf/com1985_0310_f_en.pdf. Accessed 28 July 2016.
  5. Damro, C. 2012. Market Power Europe. Journal of European Public Policy 19 (5): 682–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dardot, P., and C. Laval. 2013. The New Way of the World. On Neo-Liberal Society. London/New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  7. Delors, J. 1985. Bulletin EC 9-1985. http://aei.pitt.edu/65674/1/BUL289.pdf. Accessed 25 July 2016.
  8. European Commission. 2010. Lisbon Strategy Evaluation Document, Commission Staff Working Document, SEC(2010) 114 final. http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/pdf/lisbon_strategy_evaluation_en.pdf. Accessed 9 June 2017.
  9. European Council. 2000. The Lisbon Strategy. Presidency Conclusions, Lisbon, March 23 and 24.Google Scholar
  10. Fischer, J. 2016. Epäonnistunut Eurooppa. Helsinki: Into. [Finnish translation of Scheitert Europa? German edition in 2014, not available in English].Google Scholar
  11. Fligstein, N. 2008. Euroclash. The EU, European Identity, and the Future of Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Foucault, M. 2008. The Birth of Biopolitics. Lectures at the Collége de France, 1978–79. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  13. Friedman, G. 2009. The Next 100 Years. A Forecast for the 21st Century. London: Allison & Busby Limited.Google Scholar
  14. ———. 2015. Flashpoints. The Emerging Crisis in Europe. London: Scribe.Google Scholar
  15. Giddens, A. 2014. Turbulent and Mighty Continent. What Future for Europe? Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  16. Habermas, J. 2009. Europe. The Faltering Project. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  17. ———. 2012. The Crisis of the European Union. A Response. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  18. Harvey, D. 2005. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Hayek, F.A. 1944. The Road to Serfdom. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Heiskala, R. 2001. Theorizing Power. Weber, Parsons, Foucault and Neostructuralism. Social Science Information 40 (2): 241–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. ———. 2016. The Evolution of the Sources of Social Power, and Some Extensions. In Global Powers: Mann’s Anatomy of the Twentieth Century and Beyond, ed. R. Schroeder. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Howard, M. 2009. War in European History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Kauppi, N., and M.R. Madsen. 2013. Transnational Power Elites: The New Professionals of Governance, Law and Security. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Lenin, V.I. 1963. Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism. Selected Works, Volume 1. Moscow: Progress.Google Scholar
  25. Lukes, S. 2005. Power. A Radical View. 2nd ed. London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  26. Mann, M. 1986. The Sources of Social Power: Volume 1, A History of Power from the Beginning to A.D. 1760. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. ———. 1993a. The Sources of Social Power: Volume 2, The Rise of Classes and Nation-States, 1760–1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. ———. 1993b. Nation-States in Europe and Other Continents. Diversifying, Developing, Not Dying. Daedalus 122 (3): 115–140.Google Scholar
  29. ———. 2003. Incoherent Empire. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  30. ———. 2012. The Sources of Social Power: Volume 3, Global Empires and Revolution, 1890–1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. ———. 2013. The Sources of Social Power: Volume 4, Globalizations, 1945–2011. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  32. ———. 2016. Response to the Critics. In Global Powers: Mann’s Anatomy of the Twentieth Century and Beyond, ed. R. Schroeder. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Manners, I. 2002. Normative Power Europe: A Contradiction in Terms? Journal of Common Market Studies 40 (2): 235–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Robinson, W.I. 2011. Globalization and the Sociology of Immanuel Wallerstein: A Critical Appraisal. International Sociology 26 (6): 723–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schmidt, V.A. 2006. Democracy in Europe. The EU and National Policies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tuori, K., and K. Tuori. 2014. The Eurozone Crisis. A Constitutional Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Zielonka, J. 2006. Europe as Empire. The Nature of the Enlarged European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Risto Heiskala
    • 1
  1. 1.University of TampereTampereFinland

Personalised recommendations