Imperial Worldmaking: Innovation and Security in the EU Compared to the USA and China

  • Risto Heiskala
  • Jari Aro
Part of the Palgrave Studies in European Political Sociology book series (PSEPS)


In this chapter we continue the analysis begun in Chap.  4 involving a description of the symbolic universe implied by the EU’s Europe 2020 strategy. However, we extend the analysis of the European Union (EU) from its growth, innovation and trade policy to cover its security strategy, to obtain a better picture of how the union sees its position in the world. We then construct the symbolic universes of the USA and China on the basis of similar material, and compare the symbolic universes of the three powers to each other.


  1. China 13th Five-Year Plan. 2016. The 13th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development of The People’s Republic of China. Central Compilation & Translation Press. Accessed 22 Apr 2017.
  2. European Commission. 2010. EUROPE 2020. A Strategy for Smart, Sustainable and Inclusive Growth, Communication from the Commission, COM (2010) 2020 Final. Brussels, March 3.Google Scholar
  3. European Council. 2000. The Lisbon Strategy. Presidency Conclusions, Lisbon, March 23 and 24.Google Scholar
  4. ———. 2003. A Secure Europe in a Better World: European Security Strategy, Brussels, December 12.Google Scholar
  5. European Union Foreign and Security Policy. 2016. Shared Vision, Common Action: A Stronger Europe. A Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy, June. Accessed 13 June 2017.
  6. Friedman, G. 2009. The Next 100 Years. A Forecast for the 21st Century. London: Allison & Busby Limited.Google Scholar
  7. Hale, T., D. Held, and K. Young. 2013. Gridlock. Why Global Governance Is Faltering When We Need It Most? Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  8. Mann, M. 2003. Incoherent Empire. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  9. ———. 2013. The Sources of Social Power: Volume 4, Globalizations, 1945–2011. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. PoliticoMagazine. 2017. Where in the World Is the U.S. Military?. Accessed 20 Mar 2017.
  11. Strategy for American Innovation. 2009. Executive Office of the President, National Economic Council, Office of Science and Technology Policy: A Strategy for American Innovation: Driving Towards Sustainable Growth and Quality Jobs, September.Google Scholar
  12. ———. 2011. National Economic Council, Council of Economic Advisers, and Office of Science and Technology Policy: A Strategy for American Innovation, Securing Our Economic Growth and Prosperity, February. Accessed 13 June 2017.
  13. US National Security Strategy. 2015. National Security Strategy, February 2015. Accessed 13 June 2017.
  14. Varoufakis, Y. 2013. The Global Minotaur: America, Europe and the Future of Global Economy. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  15. White Paper on China’s Armed Forces. 2013. The Diversified Employment of China’s Armed Forces. April 2013, The Information Office of the State Council, China’s Cabinet a White Paper on China’s Armed Forces.–04/16/c_132312681.htm. Accessed 24 Feb 2015.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Risto Heiskala
    • 1
  • Jari Aro
    • 1
  1. 1.University of TampereTampereFinland

Personalised recommendations