Schools and Community Organizations: The Challenges of Integrating Education and Wraparound Services for Children

  • Edgar Schmidt


The author embarks on a complex study of the politics of education. As a former superintendent in the public school system, he was able to conduct an important study of the benefits and liabilities of community involvement in education, especially for families in need. His work incorporates the sociology of education, political studies, public policy studies, linguistic analysis, and economics in an interdisciplinary study of the politics of education. Through a mixed methods approach his research analyses government rhetoric about wraparound services using critical discourse analysis, a survey, and focus groups of civil society organization (CSO) leaders to understand their perspectives about wraparound services and inter-organizational collaboration. Finally, through a semi-structured interview approach, he interviewed households to gain an in-depth understanding of families as recipients of support from civil society organizations. His chapter discusses important policy recommendations for education and community sustainability within the context of education delivery, education administration, and grassroots and formal politics.


  1. Alberta Education. (2009). Setting the direction for special education: Phase I: Community consultation, what we heard, summary report. Edmonton: Alberta Education.Google Scholar
  2. Alberta Education. (2010). Inspiring action on education. Retrieved from
  3. Alberta Education. (2011). Albertaʼs approach to collaborative practices based on wraparound principles: Collaborative conversations facilitator guide. Retrieved from
  4. Alberta Education. (2013). Working together: Collaborative practices and partnership toolkit. Retrieved from
  5. Alberta Education. (2016). The guiding framework for the design and development of kindergarten to grade 12 provincial curriculum (programs of study). Retrieved from
  6. Alberta Education. (n.d.). Curriculum development: Why change curriculum?. Retrieved January 22, 2017, from
  7. Alberta Teachers’ Association. (2014). Report of the blue ribbon panel on inclusive education in Alberta schools. Retrieved from
  8. Allen, W. (2016, February 3). Complicated or complex—Knowing the difference is important. Learning for Sustainability. Retrieved from
  9. Anisef, P., Sweet, R., Brown, R. S., Phythian, K., & Walters, D. (2010). Early school leaving among immigrants in Toronto secondary schools. Canadian Review of Sociology = Revue Canadienne de Sociologie, 47(2), 103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Apple, M. W. (2003). State and the politics of knowledge. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Apple, M. W. (2005). Audit cultures, commodification, and class and race strategies in education. Policy Futures in Education, 3(4), 379–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Battiste, M. (2008). Research ethics for protecting indigenous knowledge and heritage. In N. K. Denzin, Y. S. Lincoln, & L. T. Smith (Eds.), Handbook of critical and indigenous methodologies (pp. 497–509). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  13. Bertram, R. M., Suter, J. C., Bruns, E. J., & O’Rourke, K. E. (2011). Implementation research and wraparound literature: Building a research agenda. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20(6), 713–725. Scholar
  14. Breen, L., & Lee, T. (2007). Young people’s perceptions and experiences of leaving high school early: An exploration. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 17(5), 329–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chamberlain, M., & Leydesdorff, S. (2004). Transnational families: Memories and narratives. Global Networks, 4(3), 227–241. Scholar
  16. Clandinin, D. J., Steeves, P., & Caine, V. (2013). Composing lives in transition a narrative enquiry into the experiences of early school leavers. Retrieved from
  17. College of Alberta School Superintendents. (2011). A framework for school system success outline. College of Alberta School Superintendents. Retrieved from
  18. Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241–1299. Scholar
  19. Davies, S., & Guppy, N. (2006). The schooled society: An introduction to the sociology of education. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Dei, G. J. (1993). Narrative discourses of Black/African-Canadian parents and the Canadian Public School System: 1. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 25(3), 45.Google Scholar
  21. Edmonton Public School Board. (2014a, January). Annual education results report summary 2012–2013. Retrieved from
  22. Edmonton Public School Board. (2014b). Three year education plan 2013–2016 and annual education results report 2012–2013. Retrieved from
  23. Edmonton RCSD. (2015). Edmonton regional collaborative service delivery. Retrieved from
  24. Fullan, M. (2003). The moral imperative of school leadership Thousand Oaks, CA; Toronto: Ontario Principals’ Council. Retrieved from
  25. Galway, G. (2012). Lessons in leadership: Perspectives on corporate managerialism and educational reform. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 130. Retrieved from
  26. Gewirtz, S. (2002). The managerial school post-welfarism and social justice in education. State of welfare. London: Routledge. Retrieved from
  27. Gewirtz, S. (2006). Towards a contextualized analysis of social justice in education. Educational Philosophy & Theory, 38(1), 69–81. Scholar
  28. Government of Alberta. (2012). Alberta’s approach to collaborative practices: Based on wraparound principles. Retrieved from
  29. Gudykunst, W. (Ed.). (2003). Cross-cultural and intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  30. Hargreaves, A., Fullan, M., & Toronto Ontario Public School Teachers’ Federation. (1998). What’s worth fighting for out there? Toronto, ON: Teachers College Press. Retrieved from
  31. Hunter, M. (1994). Mastery teaching. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  32. Johnson, R. T., & Johnson, D. W. (1986). Action research: Cooperative learning in the science classroom. Science and Children, 24(2), 31.Google Scholar
  33. Johnson, R. T., & Johnson, D. W. (1987). How can we put cooperative learning into practice? Science Teacher, 54(6), 46.Google Scholar
  34. Kimberlé Crenshaw—On Intersectionality—Keynote—WOW 2016. (2016). Retrieved from
  35. Lynch, K., Grummell, B., & Devine, D. (2012). New managerialism in education [electronic resource]: Commercialization, carelessness, and gender/Kathleen Lynch, Bernie Grummell, Dympna Devine. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved from
  36. McLaren, P. (1989). Life in schools: An introduction to critical pedagogy in the foundations of education. New York, NY: Longman.Google Scholar
  37. McLaren, P. (2002). Critical pedagogy and predatory culture: Oppositional politics in a postmodern era. London: Routledge. Retrieved from
  38. Mintzberg, H. (2009). Managing. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.Google Scholar
  39. New Education Act Will Set Course for 21st Century Learning | (2012, October). Retrieved from
  40. Noordgraaf, M., & DeWit, B. (2012). Responses to managerialism: How management pressures affect managerial relations and loyalties in education. Public Administration, 90, 957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Province of Alberta. (2003). Superintendent of schools regulation. Retrieved from
  42. Province of Alberta. Education Act. (2013). Retrieved from
  43. Robertson, H.-J. (2006). Dropouts or leftouts? School leavers in Canada. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(9), 715–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership. Vol. 4th ed. The Jossey-Bass business & management series. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from
  45. Schmidt, E. T. (2014, October 24). Wraparound services in Alberta: Government messages, civil society action, and client impacts. Retrieved from
  46. Sennett, R. (2006). The culture of new capitalism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Slee, R., Weiner, G., & Tomlinson, S. (1998). School effectiveness for whom? Challenges to the school effectiveness and school improvement movements. Bristol, PA: Falmer Press, Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  48. Task Force for Teaching Excellence. (2014). Task force for teaching excellence: Part I: Report to the Minister of Education, Government of Alberta: Part II: What we heard—Community and stakeholder consultation. Retrieved from
  49. Transforming Education in Alberta: Inspiring Education Steering Committee Report Released. (2010, June). Retrieved from
  50. Tuck, E. (2009). Re-visioning action: Participatory action research and indigenous theories of change. Urban Review, 41(1), 47–65. Scholar
  51. Van Dijk, T. A. (2009). Society and discourse: How social contexts influence text and talk. Leiden: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Van Leeuwen, T. (2008). Discourse and practice: New tools for critical discourse analysis. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from
  53. Westley, F., Patton, M. Q., & Zimmerman, B. (2007). Getting to maybe: How the world is changed. Toronto: Vintage Canada.Google Scholar
  54. Wodak, R., & Meyer, M. (Eds.). (2009). Methods of critical discourse analysis (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  55. Wotherspoon, T. (2009). The sociology of education in Canada. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edgar Schmidt
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of EducationConcordia University of EdmontonEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations