A Conceptual Framework for Supporting Expertise Development with Augmented Reality and Wearable Sensors

  • Bibeg LimbuEmail author
  • Mikhail Fominykh
  • Roland Klemke
  • Marcus Specht


Experts are imperative for supporting expertise development in apprentices but learning from them is difficult. In many cases, there are shortages of experts to train apprentices. To address this issue, we use wearable sensors and augmented reality to record expert performance for supporting the training of apprentices. In this context, we present the conceptual framework which outlines different instructional design methodologies for training various attributes of a task. These instructional design methodologies are characterized by their dependencies on expert performance and experts as model for training. In addition, they exploit the affordances of modern wearable sensors and augmented reality. The framework also outlines a training workflow based on the 4C/ID model, a pedagogic model for complex learning, which ensures that all aspects of conventional training are considered. The paper concludes with application guidelines and examples along with reflection of the authors.


Augmented reality Sensors 4C/ID Expertise Training 


  1. Azuma, R., Baillot, Y., Behringer, R., Feiner, S., Julier, S., & MacIntyre, B. (2001). Recent advances in augmented reality. Computer Graphics and Applications, 21(6), 34–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bacca, J., Baldiris, S., Fabregat, R., Graf, S., & Kinshuk. (2014). Augmented reality trends in education: A systematic review of research and applications. Educational Technology & Society, 17(4), 133–149.Google Scholar
  3. Bower, M., & Sturman, D. (2015). What are the educational affordances of wearable technologies? Computers & Education, 88, 343–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ericsson, K. A., Prietula, M. J., & Cokely, E. T. (2007). The making of an expert. Harvard Business Review, 85(7–8), 114–121. 193.Google Scholar
  5. Fominykh, M. (2016). Wearable experience: New educational Media for Knowledge Intensive Training. In Paper presented at the The 28th EdMedia World Conference on Educational Media and Technology (pp. 1–10). AACE.Google Scholar
  6. Guest, W., Wild, F., Vovk, A., Fominykh, M., Limbu, B., Klemke, R., et al. (2017). Affordances for capturing and re-enacting expert performance with wearables. In É. Lavoué, H. Drachsler, K. Verbert, J. Broisin, & M. Pérez-Sanagustín (Eds.), Data driven approaches in digital education: 12th European conference on technology enhanced learning, EC-TEL 2017, Tallinn, Estonia, September 12–15, 2017, Proceedings (pp. 403–409). Cham: Springer International Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hinds, P. J. (1999). The curse of expertise: The effects of expertise and debiasing methods on prediction of novice performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 5(2), 205–221.Google Scholar
  8. Jarodzka, H., van Gog, T., Dorr, M., Scheiter, K., & Gerjets, P. (2013). Learning to see: Guiding students’ attention via a Model’s eye movements fosters learning. Learning and Instruction, 25, 62–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kirschner, P., & van Merrienboer, J. J. G. (2008). Ten steps to complex learning: A new approach to instruction and instructional design. In T. L. Good (Ed.), 21st century education: A reference handbook (pp. 244–253). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  10. Limbu, B., Fominykh, M., Klemke, R., Specht, M., & Wild, F. (2018a). Supporting training of expertise with wearable technologies: The WEKIT reference framework. In S. Yu, M. Ally, & A. Tsinakos (Eds.), Mobile and ubiquitous learning: An international handbook (pp. 157–175). Springer: Singapore.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Limbu, B. H., Jarodzka, H., Klemke, R., & Specht, M. (2018b). Using sensors and augmented reality to train apprentices using recorded expert performance: A systematic literature review. Educational Research Review, 25, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Merriënboer, J. J. G. V., & Paas, F. (2003). Powerful learning and the many faces of instructional design: Toward a framework for the design of powerful learning environments. In Powerful learning environments: Unravelling basic components and dimensions (pp. 3–20). Oxford, England: Pergamon/Elsevier Science Ltd.Google Scholar
  13. Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. [journal article]. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(3), 43–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Neelen, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2016). Deliberate practice: What it is and what it isn’t.
  15. Patterson, R. E., Pierce, B. J., Bell, H. H., & Klein, G. (2010). Implicit learning, tacit knowledge, expertise development, and naturalistic decision making. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 4(4), 289–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rikers, R. M. J. P., Van Gerven, P. W. M., & Schmidt, H. G. (2004). Cognitive load theory as a tool for expertise development. Instructional Science, 32(1), 173–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sarfo, F. K., & Elen, J. (2007). Developing technical expertise in secondary technical schools: The effect of 4C/ID learning environments. Learning Environments Research, 10(3), 207–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schneider, J., Börner, D., van Rosmalen, P., & Specht, M. (2017). Presentation trainer: What experts and computers can tell about your nonverbal communication. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 33(2), 164–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. van Merriënboer, J. J. G., Clark, R. E., & de Croock, M. B. M. (2002). Blueprints for complex learning: The 4C/ID-model. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(2), 39–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Kester, L. (2014). The four-component instructional design model: Multimedia principles in environments for complex learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 104–148). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bibeg Limbu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mikhail Fominykh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Roland Klemke
    • 1
  • Marcus Specht
    • 1
  1. 1.Open University of the Netherlands, Welten Institute, Research Centre for Learning, Teaching and TechnologyFaculty of Psychology and Educational SciencesHeerlenNetherlands
  2. 2.Europlan UK LtdLondonUK

Personalised recommendations