Advertisement

‘Festivals Implicate Others’: Framing Cosmopolitan Encounters at a European Festival

  • Dario Verderame
Chapter

Abstract

In the complex scenario of our contemporary culture, festivals are consciously planned and experienced as a resource for engaging with diversity. More than ever nowadays ‘festival implicates “Others”’, or at least there are the conditions for this to happen. The chapter explores this prospective form of contemporary festivals by applying the concept of cosmopolitanism. What features should a festival that promotes transnational experiences have in order to become a ‘cosmoscape’, or a space that is capable of encouraging the formation of (real or imagined) cosmopolitan social ties? The author tries to answer this question by carrying out a case study on the 2013 edition of the Festival of Europe (Festival d’Europa), an event dedicated to European themes that is held every two years in the city of Florence (Italy).

References

  1. Alexander, J. C. (2012). Trauma. A Social Theory. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  3. Appadurai, A. (2004). The Capacity to Aspire: Culture and the Terms of Recognition. In V. Rao & M. Walton (Eds.), Culture and Public Action (pp. 59–84). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Appadurai, A. (2011). Cosmopolitanism from Below: Some Ethical Lessons from the Slums of Mumbai. Johannesburg Workshop in Theory and Criticism. [Online]. Retrieved January 12, 2015, from http://jwtc.org.za/volume_4/arjun_appadurai.htm
  5. Askegaard, S., & Kjeldgaard, D. (2007). Here, There, and Everywhere: Place Branding and Gastronomical Globalization in a Macromarketing Perspective. Journal of Macromarketing, 27(2), 138–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baumann, G. (1992). Ritual Implicates ‘Others’: Rereading Durkheim in a Plural Society. In D. de Coppet (Ed.), Understanding Rituals (pp. 97–116). London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck, U., & Grande, E. (2007). Cosmopolitan Europe (Translated from German by C. Cronin). Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bennett, A., Taylor, J., & Woodward, I. (Eds.). (2014). The Festivalization of Culture. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  9. Bennett, A., & Woodward, I. (2014). Festival Spaces, Identity, Experience and Belonging. In A. Bennett, J. Taylor, & I. Woodward (Eds.), The Festivalization of Culture (pp. 11–25). Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  10. Billig, M. (1995). Banal Nationalism. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  11. Binnie, J., Holloway, J., Millington, S., & Young, C. (2006). Conclusion: The Paradoxes of Cosmopolitan Urbanism. In J. Binnie, J. Holloway, S. Millington, & C. Young (Eds.), Cosmopolitan Urbanism (pp. 246–253). London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste (Translated from French by R. Nice). Harvard, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bruter, M. (2005). Citizens of Europe? The Emergence of Mass European Identity. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Calhoun, C. (2002). The Class Consciousness of Frequent Travellers: Towards a Critique of Actually Existing Cosmopolitanism. In S. Vertovec & R. Cohen (Eds.), Conceiving Cosmopolitanism: Theory, Context and Practice (pp. 86–109). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Calligaro, O. (2015). Legitimation through Remembrance? The Changing Regimes of Historicity of European Integration. Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 23(3), 330–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clifford, J. (1997). Routes: Travel and Translation in the Late Twentieth Century. Harvard, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Cram, L. (2001). Imagining the Union: A Case of Banal Europeanism? In H. Wallace (Ed.), Interlocking Dimensions of European Integration (pp. 233–246). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Delanty, G. (2011a). Cultural Diversity, Democracy and the Prospects of Cosmopolitanism: A Theory of Cultural Encounters. The British Journal of Sociology, 62(4), 633–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Delanty, G. (2011b). Conclusion. On the Cultural Significance of Arts Festivals. In L. Giorgi, M. Sassatelli, & G. Delanty (Eds.), Festivals and the Cultural Public Sphere (pp. 190–198). London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Didelon, C., & Grasland, C. (2014). Internal and External Perceptions of Europe/the EU in the World through Mental Maps. In N. Chaban & M. Holland (Eds.), Communicating Europe in Times of Crisis (pp. 65–94). London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  21. Eder, K. (2005). Remembering National Memories Together: The Formation of a Transnational Identity in Europe. In K. Eder & W. Spohn (Eds.), Collective Memory and European Identity (pp. 197–220). Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  22. Emontspool, J., & Georgi, C. (2016). A Cosmopolitan Return to Nature: How Combining Aesthetization and Moralization Processes Expresses Distinction in Food Consumption. Consumption Markets & Culture, 20, 306–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Etzioni, A., & Bloom, J. (Eds.). (2004). We Are What We Celebrate. Understanding Holidays and Rituals. New York and London: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Featherstone, M. (1992). Postmodernism and the Aestheticization of Everyday Life. In S. Lash & J. Freidman (Eds.), Modernity and Identity (pp. 265–290). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  25. Flyvbjerg, B. (2006). Five Misunderstandings about Case-Study Research. Qualitative Inquiry, 12(2), 219–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fornäs, J. (2012). Signifying Europe. Bristol and Chicago: Intellect.Google Scholar
  27. Fridman, V., & Ollivier, M. (2004). Ouverture ostentatoire à la diversité et cosmopolitisme. Vers une nouvelle configuration discursive? Sociologie et société, 36(1), 105–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Giorgi, L., Sassatelli, M., & Delanty, G. (Eds.). (2011). Festivals and the Cultural Public Sphere. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Grimes, R. L. (2014). The Craft of Ritual Studies. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Handelman, D. (1998). Model and Mirrors: Towards an Anthropology of Public Events. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  31. Hannerz, U. (1990). Cosmopolitans and Locals in World Culture. In M. Featherstone (Ed.), Global Culture (pp. 237–251). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  32. Harvey, D. (2009). Cosmopolitanism and the Geographies of Freedom. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Hawkins Lee, C. J., & Ryan, A. J. (2013). Festival Spaces as Third Places. Journal of Place Management and Development, 6(3), 192–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hollinger, D. A. (2001). Not Universalists, Not Pluralists: The New Cosmopolitans Find Their Own Way. Constellations, 8(2), 236–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jones, P. (2007). Beyond the Semantic ‘Big Bang’: Cultural Sociology and an Aesthetic Public Sphere. Cultural Sociology, 1(1), 73–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kendall, G., Woodward, I., & Skrbiš, Z. (Eds.). (2009). The Sociology of Cosmopolitanism. Globalization, Identity, Culture and Government. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  37. Kertzer, D. (1988). Ritual, Politics, and Power. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Leach, E. (1976). Culture and Communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lee, I., Arcodia, C., & Lee, T. (2012). Key Characteristics of Multicultural Festivals: A Critical Review of the Literature. Event Management, 16(1), 93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Levy, D., & Sznaider, N. (2007). Memories of Europe: Cosmopolitanism and Its Others. In C. Rumford (Ed.), Cosmopolitanism and Europe (pp. 158–177). Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Linklater, A. (2007). Distant Suffering and Cosmopolitan Obligations. International Politics, 44(1), 19–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Losito, G. (1993). L’analisi del contenuto nella ricerca sociale. Milano: FrancoAngeli.Google Scholar
  43. Maffesoli, M. (1996). The Time of the Tribes. The Decline of Individualism in Mass Society (Translated from French by D. Smith). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  44. Maier, C. S. (2002). Hot Memory … Cold Memory: On the Political Half-Life of Fascist and Communist Memory. Transit. Europäische Revue, 22. [Online]. Retrieved January 12, 2015, from http://www.iwm.at/read-listen-watch/transit-online/
  45. Manners, I. (2011). Symbolism in European Integration. Comparative European Politics, 9(3), 243–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McGuigan, J. (2005). The Cultural Public Sphere. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 8(4), 427–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nowicka, M., & Rovisco, M. (Eds.). (2009). Cosmopolitanism in Practice. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  48. Oldenburg, R. (1991). The Great Good Place. New York: Paragon House.Google Scholar
  49. Ong, J. C. (2009). The Cosmopolitan Continuum: Locating Cosmopolitanism in Media and Cultural Studies. Media, Culture and Society, 31(3), 449–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pakier, M., & Stråth, B. (Eds.). (2010). A European Memory? Contested Histories and Politics of Remembrance. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  51. Pendenza, M. (2017). Societal Cosmopolitanism: The Drift from Universalism Towards Particularism. Distinktion: Journal of Social Theory, 18, 3–17. doi:10.1080/1600910X.2017.1290668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Peterson, R. A. (2005). Problems in Comparative Research: The Example of Omnivorousness. Poetics, 33(5–6), 257–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Picard, D., & Robinson, M. (2006). Festivals, Tourism and Social Change. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.Google Scholar
  54. Regev, M. (2011). International Festivals in a Small Country. Rites of Recognition and Cosmopolitanism. In L. Giorgi, M. Sassatelli, & G. Delanty (Eds.), Festivals and the Cultural Public Sphere (pp. 108–123). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Roche, M. (2011). Festivalization, Cosmopolitanism and European Culture. On the Sociocultural Significance of Mega-Events. In L. Giorgi, M. Sassatelli, & G. Delanty (Eds.), Festivals and the Cultural Public Sphere (pp. 124–141). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Roudometof, V. (2005). Trasnationalism, Cosmopolitanism and Glocalization. Current Sociology, 53(1), 113–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rumford, C. (2008). Cosmopolitan Spaces. Europe, Globalization, Theory. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sassatelli, M. (2009). Becoming Europeans: Cultural Identity and Cultural Policies. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sassatelli, M. (2011). Urban Festivals and the Cultural Public Sphere. Cosmopolitanism between Ethics and Aesthetics. In L. Giorgi, M. Sassatelli, & G. Delanty (Eds.), Festivals and the Cultural Public Sphere (pp. 12–28). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  60. Sassatelli, M. (2012). Festivals, Museums, Exhibitions. Aesthetic Cosmopolitanism in the Cultural Public Sphere. In G. Delanty (Ed.), Routledge Handbook of Cosmopolitanism Studies (pp. 233–244). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Schofield, P., & Thompson, K. (2007). Visitor Motivation, Satisfaction and Behavioural Intention: The 2005 Naadam Festival, Ulaanbaatar. International Journal of Tourism Research, 9, 329–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shore, C. (2000). Building Europe: The Cultural Politics of European Integration. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Skrbiš, Z., Kendall, G., & Woodward, I. (2004). Locating Cosmopolitanism: Between Humanist Ideal and Grounded Social Category. Theory, Culture and Society, 21(6), 115–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Skrbiš, Z., & Woodward, I. (2013). Cosmopolitanism. Uses of the Idea. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Stake, R. E. (2005). Qualitative Case Studies. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research (3rd ed., pp. 443–466). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  66. Strauss, A. L. (1987). Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientist. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tascón, S. (2015). Human Rights Film Festivals. Activism in Context. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  68. Tomlinson, J. (1999). Globalization and Culture. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  69. Turnaturi, G. (2011). Socialità casuali. Rassegna Italiana di Sociologia, a. LII(1), 15–36.Google Scholar
  70. Turner, V. W. (1982). From Ritual to Theatre. The Human Seriousness of Play. New York: Performing Arts Journal Publications.Google Scholar
  71. Vertovec, S., & Cohen, R. (2002). Introduction: Conceiving Cosmopolitanism. In S. Vertovec & R. Cohen (Eds.), Conceiving Cosmopolitanism: Theory, Context and Practice (pp. 1–22). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Yin, R. K. (1984). Case Study Research: Design and Methods (2nd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dario Verderame
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Political, Social and Media SciencesUniversity of SalernoFiscianoItaly

Personalised recommendations