• Eustathios Kenanidis
  • Anastasios Nektarios Tzavellas
  • Andreas Leonidou
  • Eleftherios Tsiridis
  • Arkan S. Sayed-Noor
  • Bakir Kadum
  • Karl Brabants
  • Peter Mertens
  • Bogdan Nikolae Deleanu


Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a multifactorial debilitating condition that may lead to progressive destruction of the hip joint. The incidence of the disease increases among the third and fifth decade of life [1]. ONFH is the diagnosis of 5–12% of annually performed THAs in the USA [1, 2]. The pathogenesis of the disease has not been fully delineated; it is probably a multifactorial process where the genetic predisposition plays a crucial role [3, 4]. The main risk factors that have been associated with the pathogenetic mechanism of ONFH are the trauma as hip fracture and dislocation, corticosteroids or excessive alcohol consumption, coagulation disorders and haemoglobinopathies [4]. Fat and air embolization, autoimmune and storage diseases, smoking and hyperlipidaemia have also been implicated [1, 5].


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eustathios Kenanidis
    • 1
  • Anastasios Nektarios Tzavellas
    • 1
  • Andreas Leonidou
    • 2
  • Eleftherios Tsiridis
    • 3
  • Arkan S. Sayed-Noor
    • 4
  • Bakir Kadum
    • 4
  • Karl Brabants
    • 5
  • Peter Mertens
    • 5
  • Bogdan Nikolae Deleanu
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Academic Orthopaedic UnitAristotle University Medical SchoolThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Reading Shoulder UnitReadingUK
  3. 3.Academic Orthopaedic UnitPapageorgiou General Hospital, Aristotle University Medical SchoolThessalonikiGreece
  4. 4.Department of Surgical & Perioperative SciencesUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden
  5. 5.ZNA MiddelheimAntwerpBelgium
  6. 6.Pius Branzeu Emergency Clinical County HospitalTimisoaraRomania
  7. 7.Victor Babes University of Medicine and PharmacyTimisoaraRomania

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